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Lecture 19

PHIL 320A Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: If And Only If, Grater, Justice As Fairness

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- An argument of rights and duties in the basic structure is effect iff it is impossible to change
the rules so as to raise the expectations of any representative man without a the same time
lowering the excitations of some other representative man
- claim: there are many types of efficient distributions, but the best one is one that is efficient
and just
- objection all efficient distributions are declared equally just
- response: this suggestion is outlandish for the distribution of goods known to individuals, each
extreme case is efficient but cannot be just (i.e. one many having everything)
- principle of efficiency alone cannot serve as a conception of justice
- in the system of natural liberty, initial distribution is regulated by the arrangements implicit in
the conception of careers open to talents but this strongly influenced by natural and social
- liberal conception of natural liberty the expectations of those with the same abilities and
aspirations should not be affected by their social class everyone should have fair and equal
opportunity, mitigating natural and social conhtiigniencies
- problems with liberal conception distributive shares are still decided by the natural lottery,
the extent to which natural capacities developed is based on family institutions
- natural aristocracy the advantages of persons with grater natural endowments are to be
limited to those that further the good of of the power of sectors of society
- both liberal conception and natural aristocracy are unstable
- democratic equality is the best choice
- what can justify initial inequality in life prospects? the difference principe would say it is
justifiable only if the difference in expectation is to the advantage of the representative man
who is worse off
- two cases for the difference principle 1. the expectations of the least advantaged are indeed
maximized no changes in the expectations of those better off can improve the situation of
those worse off and 2. the expectations of all those better off at least contribute to the welfare
of the more unfortunate
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