BIOL 1541L Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Nervous Tissue, Human Musculoskeletal System, Photosynthesis

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Principles of Biology Chapter 1
Section 1.1 Notes
A. Life is organized (the hierarchy of levels)
I. Atom: Smallest particle of an element
-trees, humans, and other organizations, atoms join together to form molecules
II. Molecules: 2 or more atoms joining together of the same element
III. Cell: Smallest unit of life
- Some organisms are single-celled
-Multicellular organisms, the cell is the smallest structural and functional unit
IV. Tissue: a group of similar cells that perform a particular function
- Nervous tissue has millions of nerve cells transmitting signals all over the body
V. Organ: Two or more tissues join together
- The main organ that receives signals from the nerves is the brain
VI. Organ System: Organs working together to form
- Ex: Trees & humans are a collection of organ systems
B. Levels of Biological Organizations
I. Species: Group of similar organisms capable of producing fertile offspring
- Share a common gene pool
II. Population: Group of organisms of the same species in a certain area sharing a
common gene pool
- Ex: Tropical grassland having a population of humans, zebras, and acacia trees
III. Community: One species interacting with another within the same environment
IV: Ecosystem: A community of populations interacting with the physical environment
V. Biosphere: All of Earth’s ecosystems together
C. Life requires materials and energy
I. Living organisms need an outside source of materials and energy to maintain their
organizations
- Ex: Trees use carbon dioxide, water, and the sun to make their own food
II. The food we eat provides nutrients, while cells use as building blocks or for energy
III. Energy: The capacity to do work
IV. Metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions in a cell
V. Plants and certain organisms capture solar energy and carry on photosynthesis
VI. Photosynthesis: The process within chloroplasts using solar energy to reduce carbon
dioxide (CO2) to carbohydrates
D. Chemical cycling and energy flow in an ecosystem
I. (Visual in textbook and chapter 1 notes)
II. The process
- Begins when producers, like grass, take in solar energy to produce food by
photosynthesis
- Chemical cycling (blue arrows in visual) move from one population to another in
the food chain until decomposition returns to the producers once again
- Energy (red arrows in visual) flows from the sun to plants and along the food
chain as they feed on one another
- Energy does not cycle
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Document Summary

Section 1. 1 notes: life is organized (the hierarchy of levels, atom: smallest particle of an element. Trees, humans, and other organizations, atoms join together to form molecules. Molecules: 2 or more atoms joining together of the same element. Multicellular organisms, the cell is the smallest structural and functional unit. Tissue: a group of similar cells that perform a particular function. Nervous tissue has millions of nerve cells transmitting signals all over the body: organ: two or more tissues join together. The main organ that receives signals from the nerves is the brain. Ex: trees & humans are a collection of organ systems: levels of biological organizations, species: group of similar organisms capable of producing fertile offspring. Population: group of organisms of the same species in a certain area sharing a common gene pool. Ex: tropical grassland having a population of humans, zebras, and acacia trees. Community: one species interacting with another within the same environment.

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