BIOL 1541L Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Exergonic Reaction, Metabolic Pathway, Endergonic Reaction

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Lecture Notes Chapter 6
I. Metabolism: sum of all the chemical reactions in a cell
A. Breaking down and building up of molecules
1. Catabolism: breaking down molecules
2. Anabolism: Building molecules
II. Energy transformations and metabolism
A. exergonic reactions: are one where energy is released
1. Products have less free energy than reactants
2. Spontaneous
B. Endergonic reactions: require n input of energy
1. Products have more free energy than reactants
2. Require an input of energy to run
C. ATP: energy for cells
1. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate
a) Common energy currency for cells
b) ATP generated from ADP+ phosphate molecule (P)
c) Glucose breaking down provides the energy to build up ATP
d) Mitochondria is the main organelle that recycles ADP and inorganic
phosphate into ATP
D. Coupled reactions
1. The energy released by an exergonic reaction i used to drive an endergonic
reaction
III. Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways
A. enzymes: proteins that function as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions
1. Ribozymes are RNA’s that can act as catalysts
2. Participate in chemical reactions, but are not used up by the reaction
B. Metabolic pathway: series of linked reactions
1. Reactions do not occur haphazardly in cells
2. Begin with a specific reactant and product an end product
3. Metabolic energy is captured and utilized because it is released in increments
IV. Energy of Activation
A. Energy that must be added to cause reactants to react with one another
1. Need a match to start wood burning
B. Enzymes lowers the energy of activation
1. Do not change the end result of the reaction
2. Increase the reaction rate
V. How enzymes function
A. An enzyme binds with a substrate to form a complex
B. The active site is a small part of the enzyme that complexes with the substrate
C. The following equation indicates the sequence of steps in an enzyme catalyzed
reaction
D. Enzyme + substrate -> enzyme-substrate complex -> product
E. Each reaction requires a specific enzyme
F. Enzymes are often animus for their substrate because they only complex with
their substrate
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