BIOL 1541L Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Adenine, Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate

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Chapter 7 SB Notes
7.1 Overview of Cellular Respiration
I. Cellular Respiration: the release of energy from molecules such as glucose accompanied by
the use of energy to synthesize ATP molecules
A. Cellular respiration is an aerobic process that requires oxygen (O2) and gives off carbon
dioxide (CO2)
B. It usually involves the complete breakdown of glucose as shows here (draw figure below
the sentence)
C. Glucose is a high-energy molecule an its breakdown products, CO2 and H2O are low
energy molecules
D. As glucose is broken down, energy is released
E. This energy is used to produce ATP molecules
F. The breakdown of one glucose module results in the production of between 36 to 38 ATP
molecules
G. This represents about 39% of the potential energy within a glucose molecule
H. The rest of the energy dissipates
I. This conversion is more efficient than many others
J. Only between 14% and 30% of the energy within gasoline is converted to the motion of a
car
II. NAD+ and FAD
A. NAD+ ( Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide): enzymes that utilize the coenzyme as an
electron carrier
1. Coenzymes help an enzyme do its job and sometimes participate in the reaction
2. In that instance, NAD+ receives 2 electrons (is reduced) as the substrate glucose is
oxidized
3. Each electron by NAD+ as part of a hydrogen atom
4. A hydrogen atom consists of a hydrogen ion (H+) and an electron (e-)
5. NAD+ receives two e- and 2 H+ to give NADH + H+
a) Figure 7.1 and explanation
B. FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide): coenzyme frequently used as an electron carrier
1. FAD accepts two e- and 2 H+, FADH2 results
2. NAD+ and FAD are analogous to electron shuttle buses
3. They pick up electrons at specific enzymatic reactions in either the cytoplasm or the
matrix of the mitochondria and carry these high- energy electrons to an electron
transport chain in the cristae of the mitochondria, where they drop them off
4. They empty NAD+ or FAD is then free to go back and pick up more electrons
III. Phases of Cellular Respiration
A. The metabolic pathways of cellular respiration couple the release of energy within a
glucose molecule to the production of ATP
B. The coupling of these reactions reduces the amount of energy of lost as hear, which
would be significant if glucose breakdown occurred all at once.
C. First phase: glycolysis, takes place outside the mitochondria and does not utilize oxygen
D. Anaerobic: the chemical reaction that in the absence of oxygen
E. Aerobic: Where oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons
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