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Lecture 11

BIOL 2213 Lecture 11: Phys11:12

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University of Arkansas
BIOL 2213

Slide 36: When hemoglobin doesn’t have oxygen bound to it – it gets a high affinity for hydrogen ions (usually has a hydrogen ion stuck to it – HHB): important for the function of regulating pH More acidic: veins (hydrogen ions stick to hemoglobin, acts as a buffer) Deoxyhemoglobin has an affinity for hydrogen ions when it’s not with oxygen Slide 37: Oxygen concentration: As the concentration of oxygen increases the saturation increases (begins as exponential growth because as we get more oxygen bound to the hemoglobin, the affinity for additional oxygen increases – making the s shaped line) 40-100 mmHg: venous blood has affinity at 40mmHG and arterial blood has affinity at 100mmHG; over that range, the affinity for the oxygen changes (lungs: partial pressure of oxygen is high = high affinity for oxygen, as the blood goes to tissues = concentration is low and the affinity drops and releases the oxygen) Binding to an oxygen changes the conformation of the protein so that it’s easier to bind to the next oxygen, affinity becomes higher and changes shape again so it’s easier to bind the next oxygen Slide 38: Hemoglobin is inside the red blood cell – what makes it look red (red pigment); changes color depending on the amount of oxygen (Ex: blue) Lungs: Majority of oxygen diffuses across the membrane of the red blood cell, binds to hemoglobin and forms oxyhemoglobin: most important way that oxygen gets transported in the blood Tissue: Concentration of oxygen is low, unbinds from hemoglobin and affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen drops Slide 39: Three other factors that affect the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen so that it drops the oxygen at tissues and picks it up in the lungs: 1.DPG: used in respiration (more cellular respiration in the tissues – why the oxygen is being used up); higher concentration in the tissues: high affinity when there’s no DPG (lungs), lower affinity with increased DPG (tissues) 2.Body temperature: at cooler temperatures, the affinity for oxygen is high and at higher temperatures the affinity is low 3.Acidity/pH: low acidity (high pH) has a high affinity, more acidity (low pH) has a low affinity Slide 40: CO2 can bind to hemoglobin -Diffuses across plasma membrane of RBC & some binds to oxygen -Most reacts with oxygen to make carbonic acid: enzyme catalyzes the reaction so it happens faster and more efficiently -Bicarbonate leaves RBC and goes into the solution in the blood plasma (problem with negative ions leaving cell: affects the membrane potential; solution: chloride shift – moves from plasma into cell to compensate for the negative ions that left) Lungs: partial pressure of CO2 in alveoli is lower than the blood plasma, diffuses
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