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Lecture 2

BIOL 2213 Lecture 2: Phys10:27

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University of Arkansas
BIOL 2213

Slide 2: Primary function: transport Moves materials around the body (Ex: O2 from the lungs, wastes: urea from nitrogenous waste – made from breakdown of amino acids) Second major function: protection Against pathogens: -Immune system protects against pathogens from bacteria, viruses, ect -Immune system can protect against cancer (can get rid of cancerous cells) -Immune system protects body from toxins (Ex: snake or bee venom) -Immune function through the white blood cells (leukocytes) in the cardiovascular system; antibodies (lymphatic system is also important in immunity) -Against blood loss: -Homeostasis: protect against blood loss Regulation: hugely important in maintaining physiological homeostasis in body fluids (Ex: transports oxygen – important in regulating oxygen concentration, pH buffer system) -Regulates body temperature by vasoconstriction / vasodilation: if you go out and you’re in a cold environment, increase blood flow to deeper parts of the body instead of skin; goes to surface if you need to cool down Slide 3: Heart: muscular pump that provides pressure that moves the blood out of the heart and away from the heart through blood vessels (arteries) Arteries have the highest pressure in them Veins: blood vessels that return blood back to the heart In between arteries and veins: capillaries (tiniest blood vessels); where the exchange of materials between the blood and tissues occur Systemic loop: comes out of the loop by the aorta; goes to all parts of the body besides the lungs (ect: head, arms, organs) Pulmonary loop: blood leaves heart and travels to the lungs; blood becomes oxygenated in the lungs and then returns to the heart where it gets pumped through the systemic loop Red: high in oxygen Blue: low in oxygen Systemic loop: arteries have high oxygen loop and veins have low oxygen in blood Pulmonary loop: arteries are low in oxygen and veins are high in oxygen Slide 4: Noncellular components: on the top Cellular components: on the bottom Most of blood is water; liquid inside of the blood = plasma Erythrocyes: red blood cells 3 components of cells in blood : -Erythrocytes: carry oxygen and carbon dioxide -Leukocytes: white blood cells -Platelets: function in homeostasis (blood clotting) Slide 5: Have to have flow (movement of the blood from one part of the body to another part of the body) Cardiovascular system depends on flow Ex: Enter a cold environment, need to decrease the flow of blood to the skin Ex: Increasing blood flow to bicep needs to increase when working out the bicep 2 main factors that affect flow: -Pressure: delta P means difference in pressure; in order for any fluid to flow there has to be a pressure difference (flows from high pressure to low pressure) -Difference in pressure very large: high/fast flow -Difference in pressure very small: slower flow rate -Resistance: the bigger the resistance, the slower the flow -Cross-sectional area affect resistance; bigger diameter of tube = less resistance -Viscosity: how thick the blood is; causes resistance – thicker blood = more resistance -Friction of the blood against the walls of the vessels- causes drag of the movement of the fluid through the tube Slide 6: Measures the air pressure that we’re in using mercury mmHg: one unit used for measuring pressure Don’t get higher flow at higher pressure in second tube because the pressure difference is the same; total pressure doesn’t matter, it’s the difference in pressure (delta P) that matters Resistance in the tube is proportional to the inverse of the radius to the fourth power – means that there is a smaller resistance in large diameters; tiny changes in radius of the blood vessels lead to large changes in the resistance (relevance: if you’re trying to regulate flow, it doesn’t take that make change in the radius of the blood vessel to do it) Slide 7: Cardiac output affects pressure difference -Human heart has 4 chambers: L & R ventricle and L & R atriums -Ventricles force blood out of the arteries (aorta or pulmonary arteries) -Atrium receive blood returning to the heart from the veins -Biggest veins in the body: vena cava (superior and inferior vena cava) -Blood in left atrium comes from the lungs from L & R pulmonary veins -Arteries: aorta exist left ventricle (systemic loop) and pulmonary artery leaves right ventricle (pul
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