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Lecture 5

BIOL 2213 Lecture 5: Sept1

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BIOL 2213

Slide 16: What is the pH? pH = -log [H+] pH = 12 pH = 2 [H+] = 10^-2 2 has the larger hydrogen ion concentration (.01 vs. .000000000001) Slide 17: Buffers: substances that minimize changes in pH Slide 18: Important buffer in humans: carbonic acid CO2 + H2O reversible reaction to H2CO3 (carbonic acid) reversible reaction to H+ + HCO3- Slide 19: 4 major classes of macromolecues / biological molecules : proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids -All polymers made of monomers (chains made up of smaller subunits – monomers) Functional group gives them the properties that they have (ex: hydrophobic or hydrophilic) Slide 21: Chains of amino acids Protein AKA polypeptide Slide 22: 20 different amino acids Have amine group, central carbon, carboxyl , functional group Losing OH and H to make water = dehydration synthesis; makes chain of amino acids (protein) Slide 23: R groups varies from one to another – makes up the different 20 of them Slide 27: Secondary structure primarily due to hydrogen bonding Straight chain folds up on itself because of hydrogen bonding Ex figure: beta pleated sheet Slide 28: Folds again, but mainly due to attractive forces between polar groups and non-polar groups (not due to hydrogen bonding at this level) Has a specific 3D shape that enables it to perform it’s function Slide 29: Multiple chains of amino acids that have folded into 3D shapes comes together Each color is a 3D chain of amino acids Ex: hemoglobin (has 4 subunits) Slide 30: Structural- things that build your body and hold your tissues together (bone, cartilage) Carrier molecules- Examples hemoglobin, lipoproteins (carry lipids through the blood) Enzymes = hugely important; enzymes are proteins, catalyze chemical reactions Membrane proteins- different functions like ion channels (let things move in and out of cells), cell recognition Some but not all hormones are proteins Cell recognition helps with immunity Slide 31: Depends on the pH of the solution its in and the temperature Regulation of body temperature and pH to keep proteins from denaturing Slide 32: Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions Slide 33: Ex: DNA, RNA Five different possible nucleotides A, G, C, T found in DNA A, G, C, U found in RNA RNA functions in protein synthesis Slide 35: DNA has Hydrogen where RNA has hydroxyl Slide 39: Backbone of the double helix is a sugar-phosphate chain, nitrogenous bases in the middle between the two backbones T-A C-G Bonding between the bases occurs through hydrogen bonding Function of DNA is informational storage (ex: jump drive) Slide 40: 3 phosphates compared to 1 Energy currency of a cell Main molecule of a cell to do the work they need to do Energy stored mainly in bond between the last two phosphates Slide 41: Main function in humans: energy storage Simple carbohydrates: sugars (includes glucose, sucrose, monosaccharides, disaccharides) Complex carbohydrates: polysaccharides (glycogen), starch (potatoes, pasta, rice) Slide 42: Quick access to energy Slide 44: -Starches in plants, glycogen in humans Slide 46: Hydrophobic – nonpolar Primarily concerned with fats, oils and steroids in physiology Fats and oils = triglycerides Steroids = cholesterol Slide 48: Triglycerides makes fats and oils like lard and olive oil Saturated with hydrogens = only single bonds in it Double bonds in carbons = two fewer hydrogens = unsaturated fatty acids; makes a kink in the molecule Slide 49: Double bonds create kink in the molecule Saturated = solid at room temperature Unsaturated = liquid at room temperature Trans fats = bad, artificially hydrogenated fats (cardiovascular disease) Slide 50: Body is normally at homeostasis with cholesterol Lipid Hydrophobic Integral part of cell membran
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