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Lecture 2

BIOL 2213 Lecture 2: Sept17

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University of Arkansas
BIOL 2213

Chapter 6 Slide 2: -Ex: Touch, blood pressure, whether or not there is food in the intestines; body sends signals to help regulate those things- make changes in the body to help maintain homeostasis -Higher order functions: consciousness, thoughts, emotions, ability to learn Slide 3: -Brain and spinal cord are involved in integrated stuff (information coming in from outside the CNS, something happens within those structures, and then gets sent back out to do some action) -Spinal cord Ex: touch hot object, signal goes to spinal cord, goes back out to pull finger away) PNS: -Afferent neurons: go to the nervous system (Ex: sensory information) -Efferent neurons: go away from the nervous system (Ex: motor information- movement of smooth, skeleton, or cardiac muscle) Slide 4: Pink/Red = central nervous system Blue= nerves that go out to peripheral parts of the body (collect sensory information, send out motor information) Slide 5: Neurons: send action potentials very rapidly Glial cells: provide structural and nutritional support to the neurons Slide 6: Cell body: enlarged region that contains the nucleus (also called the Soma) Dendrites: extensions from cell body; (dend = tree)- where the neuron synapses with another structure Axon: one long extension from the cell body; has properties to create an action potential Action potential usually generates/originates in the initial segment (where the axon meets the cell body) Signals go away from the cell body (don’t go backwards) Axon terminals: communicate with either another neuron or an effector Slide 7: Yellow = neurons Green, purple & red = glial cells (neuroglia) 4 different types of glial cells in CNS 1)Green = astrocyte: cell that looks like a star, cell body with multiple extensions coming off of it that attach to numerous other structures; Functions: provide physical structure (hold in place) & exchange between the blood and capillaries in the CNS/ Create and regulate the blood brain barrier (and the interstitial fluid that’s bathing the cells in the CNS; interstitial fluid is less tolerant to deviations in glucose levels and concentrations of other solutes than other tissues in the body) -Blood Brain Barrier regulates exchange of materials between blood and interstitial fluid bathing the cell 2) Purple = Oligodendrocytes; have extensions that wrap around the axons to regulate the speed at which signals travel through the axon; cells that make myelin (Myelin insulates the axon which makes the action potential travel faster than if the myelin wasn’t there) -Signals travel faster in myelinated axons -If neurons are myelinated = white matter (on the inside of the brain); non- myelinated tissue looks grey (on the outside of the brain) -Grey matter on inside of spinal cord & white matter on outside of spinal cord -Oligodendrocyte name is specific to the CNS 3) Red = Micoglia: part of the immune system; can attack pathogens, bacteria or viruses that get in the CNS 4) Barrier = Ependymal cells line the hollow structures in the brain and the spinal cord -Hollow area in brain = ventricles that are full of cerebrospinal fluid; hollow tube = central canal in spinal fluid is filled with cerebrospinal fluid; full of ependymal cells- cilia helps to move the cerebrospin
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