Class Notes (838,474)
United States (325,435)
Biology (120)
BIOL 2213 (22)
Dr.Hill (18)
Lecture 1

BIOL 2213 Lecture 1: Sept3

4 Pages
Unlock Document

BIOL 2213

Slide 22: Proteins often function by binding to ligands; binding enables the protein to do its function (ex: act as enzymes, receptors for hormones) -Ability for protein to do it’s function can be turned on, off, or slowed down Allosteric modulation: in addition to the binding site, it will have another site (the allosteric site) where it can bind something else; allosteric site is like a switch that turns it on or off or slows it down. Allosteric activation: green molecule has to bind to the allosteric site to turn on the enzyme Allosteric activator causes it to change it shape, making it turn on -When ligand binds to protein it makes it change it’s shape Allosteric inhibition: binds to the allosteric site and slows down the enzyme Allosteric molecule can regulate the speed of the reaction Slide 23: Covalent modulation: second way enzymes/proteins can be regulated -Covalent bond form at another site on the enzyme, usually with the phosphate group -When phosphate group is bound with the protein (protein has become phosphoralated) -Protein kinases = will add a phosphate to the protein Ligand binds to a protein = not a covalent bond; fairly weak to enable it to pop in and out Slide 24: All enzymes in the human body are proteins & they catalyze chemical reactions Slide 25: Catabolism: larger molecule broken down into smaller molecules Anabolism: smaller molecules joined together to make a larger molecule Slide 26: Cellular respiration: to make ATP; catabolic reaction Slide 27: Factors that regulate chemical reactions Activation energy varies depending on different chemical reactions Catalyst will be an enzyme Slide 28: Reaction will go until it reaches an equilibrium Slide 29: ***Important*** -Acts as a buffer in body fluids -The way that the body carries/transports carbon dioxide (CO2 is non-polar, doesn’t dissolve a lot in your body fluids because they are mostly water) -If you add reactants to a system it will make the reaction go this way (more CO2, more H2O) to make more H and HCO3 -Will change until it reaches an equilibrium Slide 30: Reactants forced together, facilitates a bond forming between them, changes the shape of the enzyme and the product pops out 1) Binding of substrates to enzymes 2) Bond between the substrates 3) The product releasing -Enzyme doesn’t get used up; reactants get used up -Reactants can be called substrates Slide 31: Blue line – no enzyme/catalyst present; requires input of energy Ea = energy of activation With an enzyme/catalyst the energy of activation is much smaller; makes reaction go faster Slide 32: As they become more saturated, the rate of the reaction reaches a maximum rate (won’t go any faster than it’s going because all of the binding sites are used up) Slide 33: Can add more enzyme to make the reaction rate increase after it reaches max rate from saturation Slide 35: Enzyme activity refers to how active it is at doing the reaction; can be effected by allosteric modulation, covalent modulation, temperature, pH Slide 36: Biochemical pathway for multienzyme reaction Regulate this reaction by end product inhibition – the last product in the pathway will inhibit an enzyme earlier on in the pathway Form of negative feedback CHAPTER 4 Slide 2: -Simplest -”Net movement” because it is going both ways Slide 3: Ex: high concentration around body, low concentration in the rest of the room; cologne molecules gradually move to the rest of the room Movement of each individual molecule is random Slide 5: More movement going from left to right compared to right to left Slide 6: Simplest: diffusion of molecules through the membrane without any protein involved -Doesn’t require any energy -Non-polar substances can move easily across the membrane (ex: oxygen, CO2) -Size of molecule also affects it’s ability to move (small molecules can move across the membrane) -Polar molecule can not move across the cell membrane (Ex: wa
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 2213

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.