Class Notes (838,474)
United States (325,435)
Biology (120)
BIOL 2213 (22)
Dr.Hill (18)
Lecture 1

BIOL 2213 Lecture 1: Sept3

4 Pages
79 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 2213
Professor
Dr.Hill
Semester
Fall

Description
Slide 22: Proteins often function by binding to ligands; binding enables the protein to do its function (ex: act as enzymes, receptors for hormones) -Ability for protein to do it’s function can be turned on, off, or slowed down Allosteric modulation: in addition to the binding site, it will have another site (the allosteric site) where it can bind something else; allosteric site is like a switch that turns it on or off or slows it down. Allosteric activation: green molecule has to bind to the allosteric site to turn on the enzyme Allosteric activator causes it to change it shape, making it turn on -When ligand binds to protein it makes it change it’s shape Allosteric inhibition: binds to the allosteric site and slows down the enzyme Allosteric molecule can regulate the speed of the reaction Slide 23: Covalent modulation: second way enzymes/proteins can be regulated -Covalent bond form at another site on the enzyme, usually with the phosphate group -When phosphate group is bound with the protein (protein has become phosphoralated) -Protein kinases = will add a phosphate to the protein Ligand binds to a protein = not a covalent bond; fairly weak to enable it to pop in and out Slide 24: All enzymes in the human body are proteins & they catalyze chemical reactions Slide 25: Catabolism: larger molecule broken down into smaller molecules Anabolism: smaller molecules joined together to make a larger molecule Slide 26: Cellular respiration: to make ATP; catabolic reaction Slide 27: Factors that regulate chemical reactions Activation energy varies depending on different chemical reactions Catalyst will be an enzyme Slide 28: Reaction will go until it reaches an equilibrium Slide 29: ***Important*** -Acts as a buffer in body fluids -The way that the body carries/transports carbon dioxide (CO2 is non-polar, doesn’t dissolve a lot in your body fluids because they are mostly water) -If you add reactants to a system it will make the reaction go this way (more CO2, more H2O) to make more H and HCO3 -Will change until it reaches an equilibrium Slide 30: Reactants forced together, facilitates a bond forming between them, changes the shape of the enzyme and the product pops out 1) Binding of substrates to enzymes 2) Bond between the substrates 3) The product releasing -Enzyme doesn’t get used up; reactants get used up -Reactants can be called substrates Slide 31: Blue line – no enzyme/catalyst present; requires input of energy Ea = energy of activation With an enzyme/catalyst the energy of activation is much smaller; makes reaction go faster Slide 32: As they become more saturated, the rate of the reaction reaches a maximum rate (won’t go any faster than it’s going because all of the binding sites are used up) Slide 33: Can add more enzyme to make the reaction rate increase after it reaches max rate from saturation Slide 35: Enzyme activity refers to how active it is at doing the reaction; can be effected by allosteric modulation, covalent modulation, temperature, pH Slide 36: Biochemical pathway for multienzyme reaction Regulate this reaction by end product inhibition – the last product in the pathway will inhibit an enzyme earlier on in the pathway Form of negative feedback CHAPTER 4 Slide 2: -Simplest -”Net movement” because it is going both ways Slide 3: Ex: high concentration around body, low concentration in the rest of the room; cologne molecules gradually move to the rest of the room Movement of each individual molecule is random Slide 5: More movement going from left to right compared to right to left Slide 6: Simplest: diffusion of molecules through the membrane without any protein involved -Doesn’t require any energy -Non-polar substances can move easily across the membrane (ex: oxygen, CO2) -Size of molecule also affects it’s ability to move (small molecules can move across the membrane) -Polar molecule can not move across the cell membrane (Ex: wa
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 2213

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit