BIOL 2443 Lecture 10: Physiological Basis of Therapeutics L8

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20 Feb 2019
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Wednesday, August 29, 2018
Tuesday, September 4, 2018
Physiological Basis of Therapeutics
Lecture 8: The Integumentary System (CH 5)
Integumentary system (integument)
o Largest system of the body
Sixteen percent of body weight
1.5 to 2 m2 of surface area
Two major parts
Cutaneous membrane (skin)
Accessory structures
o Components of the cutaneous membrane
Outer epidermis
Superficial epithelium
Inner dermis
Connective tissues
o The integument contains blood vessels and sensory receptors
o Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)
Loose connective tissue
Below the dermis
Location of hypodermic injections (s.c.)
o Accessory structures
Originate in the dermis
Extend through the epidermis to skin surface
Hair and hair follicles
Exocrine glands
Nails
o Functions of the integument
Protection of underlying tissues and organs
Excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes (glands)
Maintenance of normal body temperature
Production of melanin
Production of keratin
Synthesis of vitamin D3 important for bone synthesis
Storage of lipids
Detection of touch, pressure, pain, etc.
Coordination of the immune response
Absorption and excretion of drugs
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Wednesday, August 29, 2018
Tuesday, September 4, 2018
5-1 Epidermis
o Epidermis
Stratified squamous epithelium
Avascular, like all epithelia
Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from capillaries in the dermis
o Cells of the epidermis
Keratinocytes
The body’s most abundant epithelial cells
Contain large amounts of keratin (protein)
o Two types of skin
Thin skin
Covers most of the body
Has four layers (strata) of keratinocytes
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Wednesday, August 29, 2018
Tuesday, September 4, 2018
Thick skin
Covers the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
Has five layers (strata) of keratinocytes
o Five strata (layers) of keratinocytes in thick skin
From basement membrane to free surface
o BASEMENT MEMBRANE
Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum only in thick skin
Stratum corneum
SURFACE
o Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
Attached to basement membrane by hemidesmosomes
Forms a strong bond between epidermis and dermis
Contains epidermal ridges (i.e. fingerprints)
Lie next to dermal papillae in dermis
o Increase the area of basal lamina
Has many basal cells, or germinative cells
Stem cells that replace superficial keratinocytes
Ridges and Ducts
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Document Summary

Integumentary system (integument: largest system of the body, sixteen percent of body weight, 1. 5 to 2 m2 of surface area, two major parts, cutaneous membrane (skin, accessory structures, components of the cutaneous membrane, outer epidermis, superficial epithelium. Increase the area of basal lamina: has many basal cells, or germinative cells, stem cells that replace superficial keratinocytes, ridges and ducts. Tuesday, september 4, 2018: ulcer: localized shedding of an epithelium due to damage, decubitis ulcer (bedsore) due to compression of superficial blood vessels in skin, requires frequent movement (special beds) Tuesday, september 4, 2018: and also blood circulation (red cells/hemoglobin, melanin, red-yellow or brown-black (u-melanin) pigment, produced by melanocytes in stratum germinativum in response to. Jaundice: buildup of bile/bilirubin produced by liver from hemolysis and liver disease, skin and whites of eyes may turn yellow/orange, pituitary tumor. Insufficient vitamin d3 can cause rickets: have to get vitamins from diet b/c body doesn"t make them at all or doesn"t make enough.

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