BIOL 2443 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Synovial Joint, Synchondrosis, Fibrous Joint

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20 Feb 2019
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BLOCK 2
A&P BLOCK 2
Lecture 10: Joints
An Introduction to Joints
o Joints (articulations)
Where two bones meet
Where body movement occurs
o A tradeoff exists between strength and mobility
9-1 Classification of Joints
o Two classification schemes
Structural (anatomy)
Functional (range of motion)
o Joint structure determines function
Determines direction and distance of movement (range of motion).
Joint strength decreases as mobility increases.
o Functional classifications
Synarthrosis (immovable joint)
Fibrous or cartilaginous connections
May fuse over time
Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable joint)
Fibrous or cartilaginous connections
Diarthrosis (freely movable joint)
Synovial joints
o Structural classifications
Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Bony
Synovial
o Synarthrosis (immovable joint)
Very strong
Edges of bones may touch or interlock
May be fibrous or cartilaginous
Four types of synarthrotic joints
Suture
Gomphosis
Synchondrosis
Synostosis
o Synarthrosis (immovable joint)
Suture
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BLOCK 2
Found only between bones of skull
Edges of bones interlock
Bound by dense fibrous connective tissue
Gomphosis
Binds teeth to bony sockets
Fibrous connection (periodontal ligament)
o Synarthrosis (immovable joint)
Synchondrosis
Rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bones
Found between vertebrosternal ribs and sternum
Also, epiphyseal cartilage of growing long bones
Synostosis
Created when two bones fuse
Example:
o metopic suture of frontal bone
o epiphyseal lines of mature long bones
o Amphiarthrosis
More movable than a synarthrosis
Stronger than a diarthrosis
May be fibrous or cartilaginous
Two types of amphiarthroses
Syndesmosisbones connected by a ligament between tibia
and fibula
Symphysisbones connected by fibrocartilage
9-2 Synovial Joints
o Synovial joints (diarthroses)
Freely movable joints
At ends of long bones
Surrounded by joint capsule (articular capsule)
Contains synovial membrane
Synovial fluid from synovial membrane
Fills joint cavity
Articular cartilage covers articulating surfaces
Prevents direct contact between bones
o Synovial fluid
Has the consistency of egg yolk
Contains proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts
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BLOCK 2
Primary functions include
Lubrication: articular cartilage is like a sponge filled with synovial
fluid
Nutrient distribution: synovial fluid flows through synovial
membrane when joints move and additional nutrients added to
synovial fluid and wastes absorbed.
Shock absorption: When pressure suddenly increases in a joint,
the viscosity of synovial fluid increases lessening the shock.
o Synovial joints are mobile but relatively weak
o Stabilized by accessory structures
Cartilages
Cushion the joint
Meniscusfibrocartilage pad between opposing bones
Fat pads
Superficial to the joint capsule
Adipose tissue covered by synovial membrane
Protect articular cartilages
Ligaments
Support and strengthen joints
Sprainligament with torn collagen fibers
Tendons
Attach to muscles around joint
Bursae
Small pockets of synovial fluid
Cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub against other
tissues
Bursitis/bunions (base of great toe)
o Factors that stabilize synovial joints
Prevent injury by limiting range of motion
Collagen fibers of joint capsule and ligaments
Shapes of articulating surfaces and menisci
Other bones, muscles, or fat pads
Tendons attached to articulating bones
o Injuries
Dislocation (luxation)
Articulating surfaces are forced out of position
Damages articular cartilage, ligaments, and joint capsule.
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