BIOL 2443 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Extracellular Fluid, Whole Blood, Blood Proteins

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20 Feb 2019
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BLOCK 2
A&P
Lecture 15: Blood
Blood and the Cardiovascular System
o Fluid matrix (Chapter 19: Blood)
o A pump (Chapter 20: The Heart)
o Series of conducting hoses (Chapter 21: Blood Vessels)
19-1 Components and Functions of Blood
o Blood
Specialized connective tissue
Contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix
o Functions of blood
Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
(and drug molecules)
Regulating pH, ion composition of interstitial fluids
Restricting fluid losses at injury sites
Defending against toxins and pathogens
Stabilizing body temperature
o Characteristics of blood
38ºC (100.4ºF)
High viscosity
Slightly alkaline (pH of 7.357.45)
Serum Osmolality (275295 mosm/kg)
o Blood volume (liters) = 7 percent of body weight (kilograms)
A 75-kg (165-lb) person would have approximately 5.25 liters (5.4 quarts)
of blood
Range: 4.5 5.5 liters
The high viscosity results from interactions among dissolved proteins,
formed elements, and water molecules in plasma.
Albumins are the major contributors to plasma osmolarity and osmotic
pressure.
o Whole blood
Plasma
Fluid
Formed elements
Cells and cell fragments
RBC = hematocrit #
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BLOCK 2
o Fractionation
Process of separating whole blood into plasma and formed elements
o Plasma
Makes up about 55 percent of blood volume
More than 90 percent of plasma is water
Also contains dissolved plasma
proteins and other solutes
Similar in composition to interstitial fluid
Because water, ions, and small solutes
are exchanged across capillary walls
The primary differences between plasma and
interstitial fluid involve
(1) the levels of respiratory gases
(oxygen and carbon dioxide, due to the respiratory activities of
tissue cells) CO2 build up in interstitial space b/c of cellular resp
(Krebs) plasma removes it by pulling CO2 away from tissues
and putting O2 out towards tissues
(2) the concentrations and types of dissolved proteins because
plasma proteins typically cannot cross capillary walls.
o Plasma proteins
Albumins (60 percent)
Major contributors to plasma osmolarity
Transport fatty acids, thyroid hormones, some steroid hormones,
and drug molecules.
Globulins (35 percent)
BCOP = force pushing things INTO capillary from
interstitial = plasma protein (blood colloid)
CHP = Main driving force pushing things INTO
interstitial force from capillaries = BP
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BLOCK 2
Antibodies (immunoglobulins)
Transport globulins including hormone-binding proteins,
metalloproteins, apolipoproteins (lipoproteins), and steroid-
binding proteins
Fibrinogen (4 percent)
Soluble protein that functions in clotting
Converted to insoluble fibrin
Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin leaves serum (fluid) in blood
sample
Other plasma proteins (1 percent)
Varying concentrations of enzymes and hormones
Serum is the liquid portion of the blood after it has been allowed to clot.
It is free of clotting proteins but contains the clotting metabolites that
result from the clotting process. It is a cleaner sample typically free of
cells and platelets because they are trapped in the fibrin meshwork of the
clot. Plasma, on the other hand, is the liquid portion of blood that has
been prevented from clotting and is more reflective of the blood as it
circulates in the body. Though it has an advantage over serum in that
testing is not delayed by waiting 30 minutes for a clot to form, it is
typically contaminated by platelets and cellular elements that have the
potential to alter analytical results.
o Origins of plasma proteins
More than 90 percent made in liver
Including all albumins, fibrinogen, most globulins, and various
proenzymes
Antibodies made by plasma cells (B cells that have been activated)
Peptide hormones made by endocrine organs
o Formed elements 45% (hematocrit)
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Cell fragments (platelets)
o Hemopoiesis
Process of producing formed elements
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