PHIL 2003C Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Modus Tollens, Modus Ponens, Soundness

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Validity: the argument is valid if it is impossible for all of the premises to be true and the conclusion false: the truth of the premises makes the truth of the conclusion necessary. Soundness: the argument is valid and all premises are true: true beyond structure. Persuasiveness: the argument is valid and sound. 4 argument forms: modus ponens: if p, then q. Affirming the antecedent (valid: modus tollens: if p, then q. Denying the consequent (valid: denying the antecedent: if p, then q. Invalid: affirming the consequent: if p, then q.

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