BMB 420 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Innate Immune System, Globus Pallidus, Symptom

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T.pallidum
(Syphilis)
Pathogenesis:
- Delayed hypersesnsitivity can cause ulcerations and necrosis during tertiary stage
- Due to the lack of immunogenic molecules and the downregulation of T cells, immunity
to T. pallidum is considered incomplete.
- The scarcity of PAMPs allows T. pallidum to undergo repeated rounds of dissemination
that are not well detected by the innate immune system. This explains the lack of
systemic symptoms, despite the fact that the bacterium is located systemically.
- Antigenic peptides from the binding of lipopeptides to TLRs are presented to T cells and
this causes the inflammatory response that causes symptoms
Signs and Symptoms:
- Can range from 10-90 days
Primary Stage:
- Chancres are round, firm, and painless.
- People don’t always see them because they can be found in body cavities
Secondary Stage:
- Rashes can occur on other parts of the body as well, usually resembling rashes from other
infections
- Condyloma lata= large, raised, gray/ white regions
- Warm moist regions= mouth, underarms, groin
- Nonspecific symptoms= fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss,
headaches, weight loss, muscle aches/ fatigue
Latent stage:
- Early= infection within past 12 months
- Late= occurred more than 12 months ago
Tertiary:
- Can affect brain, nerves, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, etc.
- Symptoms vary depending on which organ system is affected
Diagnosis:
- Elevated cardiplipin levels are found in numerous chronic conditions and infections
- Treponemal detects IgG and IgM antibodies produced against T. pallidum
- Reverse algorithum= Treponemal first to save time in big labs, can cause false positives
Treatment
- Penicillin has a 98% success rate in preventing mother- child transmission.
- If mother is allergic, they should see a specialist for desensitation to penicillin
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Document Summary

Delayed hypersesnsitivity can cause ulcerations and necrosis during tertiary stage. Due to the lack of immunogenic molecules and the downregulation of t cells, immunity to t. pallidum is considered incomplete. The scarcity of pamps allows t. pallidum to undergo repeated rounds of dissemination that are not well detected by the innate immune system. This explains the lack of systemic symptoms, despite the fact that the bacterium is located systemically. Antigenic peptides from the binding of lipopeptides to tlrs are presented to t cells and this causes the inflammatory response that causes symptoms. People don t always see them because they can be found in body cavities. Rashes can occur on other parts of the body as well, usually resembling rashes from other infections. Condyloma lata= large, raised, gray/ white regions. Nonspecific symptoms= fever, swollen lymph glands, sore throat, patchy hair loss, headaches, weight loss, muscle aches/ fatigue. Late= occurred more than 12 months ago.

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