BMB 420 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, Gram Staining, Clean Edge

34 views3 pages
February 27, 2019
Case Study Cont.
Blood agar results: gamma hemolysis
Gram stain: gram positive coccus
o Leads us to believe we have staph infection
Coagulase test: negative
STI panel: blood and urine analysis, gram stain; test for 9-11 STIs at same time
Can we diagnosis now? No, results do not match
Discharge gram stain: eukaryotic nuclei, intracellular cocci that are gram negative
o Suggests Neisseria gonorrhea
Why did we get gram positive cocci on gram stain?
o Contamination and not clean edge (skin has staph cocci)
o Gc will not grow on blood agar, must grow on chocolate agar
Now onto the sore throat.....
o Throat swab and conduct rapid strept test
Strept test: negative
o Culture other swab: alpha hemolysis on blood agar
Can rule out strept
o Concurrent Gc infection.... might also have pharyngeal infection
o Chocolate agar: growth that show signs of gonorrhae
Genetic analysis last step to see if same strain of Gc or differing
Antibiotic disc sensitivity test as well
Exposed to gonorrhea by sexual contact
Once in urogenital tract, attaches and invades non-ciliated epithelial cells
o Microvilli and ciliated are not the same!
Ciliated cells “flush out” invasive bacteria, these are mucosal cells that produce mucus to
rid the body of bacteria
Gc Responses:
o Sends membrane vesicles to the mitochondria, contain poring B - leads to
destruction of those epithelial cells
o Can also pass thru epithelial cells and be taken up by macrophage or neutrophils
Macrophages phagocytosed, some kill bacteria and produce cytokines
(tumor necrosis factor alpha act on same epithelial cells but ALL
epithelial cells including ciliated, triggers apoptosis)
o Release of peptidoglycan / lipoligossachride recycled in cells, receptor
o Neutrophils migrate out of blood due to pathogen signaling and release
cytokines due to damage of mast cells (or any cells), HELP Gc
Help Gc by...
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 3 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+20% OFF
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers