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Lecture 13

SOCI 1010 Lecture 13: Sociology Chapter 13 Religion and Education

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SOCI 1010

Sociology Chapter 13: Religion and Education Religion • A unified system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things. • Sacred: elements beyond everyday life that inspire awe, respect, and even fear o Ex: the bible • Profane: the ordinary and commonplace ▪ Ex: dining room table World Religions • Christianity, the largest single faith in the world • Islam, the second largest faith in the world o Both are similar o Monotheistic, include a prophets, an afterlife, and a judgement day o Impose a moral code • Judaism, monotheistic view o Believe God's true nature is Torah • Hinduism o Embraces a number of gods and minor gods o Believe in reincarnation or perpetual rebirth of the soul after death o Preserved mostly through oral tradition • Buddhism o Faith founded on the teaches of Siddhartha o Monastic orders o Meditation; a goal of reaching a state of enlightenment, or nirvana Functionalist View • Manifest functions o Helps people through times of crisis o Provides comfort and reasoning o Holds society together; agent of socialization o Provides a sense of belonging and identity • Latent Functions o Protestant work ethic, Weber: the idea that a good person is a busy, hardworking, and active person ▪ A good person works hard and will be rewarded for it. ▪ Gives us a reason to blame the poor for their state o Liberation theory: the use of church in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice from a secular society ▪ Obligations to help others Conflict Theory • Sees religion as a negative because it impedes social progress o Those people who are religious are inclined to defer from political matters and focus on otherworldly concerns • Religion drugs the people from social change • Marxist: gives false consciousness; like the meek will inherit the earth 2 • Stained glass ceiling: stunt clergywomen's career development; makes it harder for women to work certain positions. Feminist Perspective • Sees gender inequality in religion • Women are excluded from high religious roles • used to enforce the status quote, keep patriarchy alive, and not change the social status Components of Religion • Beliefs: are statement to which members of a particular religion adhere o Dose not require observation o Believing something by faith, not by seeing o Almost all religions believe in an afterlife • Fundamentalist: an emphasis on doctrinal conformity and the literal interpretation of sacred sacred texts o Psalms, proverbs, Song of Solomon: books of poetry o Rising among those who oppose secularism • Rituals : practices required or expected of members of a faith o Usually honor the divine power • Experience: refers to the feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as divine being, or of being overcome with religious emotions Religious Organizations • Eclesiae, largest organization that exist, o Claims to include most or all members of a society and is recognized as the national or official religion ▪ Ex: Church of England 3 • Denominations second largest variety of religion, o Large organized religions that is not linked to a government ▪ Ex: baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian o At least 25 denominations that houses at le
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