FHS 213 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Egocentrism, 18 Months, Object Permanence

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Individual & Family Life Cycles April 9, 2018:
What is a family?
Only 6% of families still fit the 1950s nuclear family ideal of married couple &
Dual-career families are common
Reversed role families (working wife, househusband)
Many different family forms
Legal definition: a group of individuals who share ties of blood, marriage, or
adoption; a group residing together and consisting of parents, children, and
other relatives by blood or marriage; a group of individuals residing together
Impact of Early Development:
Evidence suggests that the first 2-3 years of a child's life are the most influential
in an individual's life span
Early life experiences impact one's biopsychosocial functioning
A responsive nurturing environment fosters brain development
Multiple influences both inside and outside of one's immediate family can
impact healthy development
The primary source of a child's security, self-esteem, self-control, and social
Through this one incredibly intimate relationship, a baby learns how to identify
her own feelings and how to read them in others
Attachment built by early bonding experiences provides the foundation for
future healthy relationships
Attachment styles:
Identified by John Bowlby and popularized by Mary Ainsworth's Strange in the
late sixties
Listed in order of decreasing commonality
Secure attachment (loving parents)
See parents as a secure base
Children are confident that parents will meet their needs
As adults they are…
Secure & connected with other adults
Allow for freedom in relationships ii.
Seeks comfort from others when troubled iii.
Dismissive avoidant attachment (rejecting parents)
Independent of parental figure a.
Don't look for parents when distressedb.
As adults they are…
Emotionally distant from othersi.
Detaches easily from relationships ii.
Higher emphasis on independence iii.
Don't seek comfort from othersiv.
Anxious Preoccupied Attachment (inconsistent parenting)
Insecure when parent figure isn't around a.
Not comforted when parental figure is around b.
As adults they are…
Look for others to "complete them" i.
Clingy with others, overly positiveii.
Partner independence is negatively evaluated iii.
Looks for others for comfort but may push them awayiv.
Fearful Avoidant/Disorganized (atypical parenting)
Easily stressed a.
May still avoid parents for comfortb.
As adults they are…
Often anxiousi.
Afraid to be too close or too distant from othersii.
Overwhelmed by emotionsiii.
Negative self beliefs iv.
Often desires comfort from others but negatively evaluates their
worthiness of comfort
Across all cultures, secure attachment is the most common form
Slightly more common in collectivistic cultures
Some cultures place more value in children who obey commands as opposed to
seeking comfort
Children with disabilities may show atypical attachment styles (i.e., difficulty
interpreting mother's signals)
Children with secure attachments were rates as more attentive, participatory,
and received better grades
Non-secure attachments have been implicated with several psychiatric
disorders, also correlated with hostility towards other children in early
Attachment style linked with overall social adjustment and well-being
Piaget Stages of Development:
One size fits all model doesn't fit everyone, but they're easy to understand and
provide a framework
Sensorimotor Stage: birth-18-24 months
Infants learn through senses & manipulation of objectsa.
Infants only aware of their immediate environment (object permanence) b.
Object permanence develops between 7-9 monthsc.
Language and movement starts to develop at ~18 months d.
Preoperational Stage: 18-24 months to age 7
Children able to think symbolically (i.e., smile=happiness)a.
Language, memory, imagination, and awareness of time mature (able to
differentiate between past and future)
Egocentrism c.
Conservation d.
Animalism- start to attribute animal-like qualities to inanimate objects e.
Concrete Operational Stage: age 7-12
Thinking becomes less egocentrica.
Recognition that one's thoughts & beliefs are unique b.
Development of the ability to reassure, and care about
thoughts/emotions of others (enthalpy)
develop conservation mored.
Formal Operational Stage: age 12-beyond
Thinking becomes more abstract (can conceptualize moral, ethical, and
sociopolitical issues)
Capable of attributing value to symbols b.
Although this way the final stage included in the model, development
continued into adulthood
Criticism of Piagets' model:
Doesn't consider environmental factors, which can delay development
Can also develop much faster
Adolescent Development:
Learning becomes much more contingent on environmental factors
Although the capacity for empathy develops early, adolescents can be self-
As the ability for critical thinking develops, adolescents often find cause for
disagreement with adults
In learning to process emotions, emotional challenges can always seem like a
big deal
Week 2
Monday, April 9, 2018
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