Week 6 lecture 1
Which of the following is the biological cascade that is activated with prolonged stress?
• a. The adrenal-hypothalamic-prefrontal axis
• b. The cortical-thalamic-neural axis
• c. The psycho-neuro-biological axis
• d. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
Kayla has just started college and wants to make friends. She refuses to go to large parties
becauseshe is afraid that she will blush and sweat, and that other people will laugh at her. She is
finewhen talking to people in one-on-one settings. Kayla’s most likely diagnosis is:
• a. social phobia
• b. specific phobia, situational type
• c. agoraphobia without history of panic disorder
• d. generalized social phobia
Gradual exposure to feared cues is:
• a. an old treatment for anxiety disorders that is no longer used.
• b. a common component of treatment for all anxiety disorders.
• c. likely to make someone with an anxiety disorder worse in the long term.
• d. a useful treatment for phobias but not other anxiety disorders.
Quizzes will generally include questions about:
• DSM-5 definition of each disorder
– Who is most vulnerable?
– What disorders are more common than others?
• Risk and protective factors
• Effective treatments
Schizophrenia—more common to hear voices, less common(unlikely) to have visual aspects
Psychosis is a striking and essential feature of schizophrenia. Psychosis means: a significant loss
of contact with reality
DSM-5 Criteria for Schizophrenia:
At least 2 of the following symptoms present for a significant portion of time for over 1 month.
At least one symptom must be 1, 2, or 3
2. Hallucinations 3. Disorganized speech- formal thought disorder
4. Grossly disorganized behaviors
5. Negative symptoms—depressed emotional symptoms
Continuous signs of disturbance for at least 6months
➢ Active phase symptoms for at least 1-month
➢ Prodromal (before active phase) or residual (after acute phase) symptoms
(fun fact: people with schizophrenia are not very ticklish)
• Erroneous beliefs
• Fixed and firmly held despite clear contradictory evidence
• Disturbance in the content of thought
• Examples: external agents control thoughts, neutral environmental event has personal
• Sensory experience
• Seems real but occurs in absence of any external perceptual stimulus
• Can occur in any sensory modality
❖ Failure to make sense
❖ Despite conforming to semantic and syntactic rules of speech
o Disturbance in form (not content) of thought
Positive symptoms—excess or distortion in normal behavior and experience—an addition of
❖ Hallucinations—in any modality, auditory is the most common
o Ideas of reference
o Grandiose (religious)
o Somatic delusions