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Lecture 9

PSY 309 Lecture 9: Psychopathology

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PSY 309
Nicholas Allen

Week 5 Lecture 2 Essay 2 due next Monday before class—download essay prompt, case study, and rubric Depression—often referred to as the common cold of psychopathology. This is both useful and un-useful, most people can get it, but that does not mean it is trivial Two major types of mood disorder • Unipolar—only depressive episodes • Bipolar—manic and depressive episodes Mood disorders are common • Lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder is nearly 17% • 12-month prevalence rates are nearly 7% • about twice as common in woman than men • lifetime prevalence for bipolar disorder is near 1% Major Depressive Episode: (the ones in bold are necessary for diagnosis) 5 or more symptoms present for more than 2 weeks • Depressed mood • Anhedonia—lack of enjoyment from previous pleasures, no happiness • Decrease/increase in appetite OR significant weight loss or gain • Persistently increased or decreased sleep • Psychomotor agitation (fidgety ) or retardation (monotonic) • Fatigue or low energy • Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt • Decreased concentration or indecisiveness • Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempt To have a major depressive disorder you must have a major depressive episode The episode is not better explained by another diagnosis No history of mania Major depressive episode specifiers: • Psychotic features o Experiences delusions and hallucinations • Melancholic features o Mood worse in the AM o Weight loss o Psychomotor agitation o Excessive guilt • Catatonic features o Unusual movements or inability to move (body is almost completely shut-down, some people are mute no motivation to speak) • Postpartum onset—onset after childbirth (meets all criteria of major depressive episode) • Seasonal pattern (seasonal affective disorder (SAD) or winter depression)—affects someone only at certain times of the year Sign vs symptom Sign is something that you observe Symptom is something that is reported Biological models of depression o Neurotransmitters o Serotonin o Noradrenaline o Dopamine o Brain derived neurotropic (BDNF) o Genetic risk o Increased risk in family and twin studies o No main effects of genes o Some gene by environment interactions Behavioral models of depression: o Behavioral theories o Highlight that life stress leads to depression because it reduces the positive reinforce in a person’s life o Withdrawless reinforcers wit
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