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BIO 110 (153)

Class Notes for BIO 110 at University of Rochester (page 6)

Principles Of Biology I

BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 30: T Helper Cell, Reverse Transcriptase, Wolbachia
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Viruses & HIV ● Wolbachia - a parasitic bacteria which can: ○ Transform host males into females ○ Cause host speciation (creation of new species) ○ Be used to stop the spread of Zika ...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 29: Innate Immune System, Mast Cell, Humoral Immunity
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Immune System ● Pathogens - agents that cause disease ● Immunity - the ability to avoid disease when invaded by a pathogen ○ Innate immunity ○ Acquired immunity ● Innate immunity - non...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Atp Synthase, Carbon Fixation, Light-Dependent Reactions
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De Novo Paper ● Do new proteins catalyze the same reaction as old proteins? Or bypass a step in the same biosynthetic pathway? A → B → C → D ● Much of paper was spent testing other hypotheses other...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 27: Glucogenic Amino Acid, Ketogenic Amino Acid, Citrate Synthase
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Oxidative Phosphorylation ● Uncoupled reactions - electron transport chain and ATP synthase ○ If electron transport chain is stopped → proton gradient is dissipated → ATP synthase will stop ...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 26: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Atp Synthase, Alpha Helix
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Electron Transport ● First CO2 found when breaking down glucose was in pyruvate dehydrogenase ● Pyruvate dehydrogenase also produced one of electron carriers ● Other CO2 were produced Krebs Cycle ● Getting...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture 25: BIO 110
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Diabetes ● Purpose of Krebs Cycle ○ Harvests 8 electron pairs per glucose ○ Hub of metabolism - intersection for many pathways ● Diabetes - the inability to do insulin signaling correctly ...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 24: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex, Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Lipoic Acid
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Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) ● Occurs in mitochondrial matrix (space inside both of the membranes) ● Advantages/disadvantages of cycle after glycolysis ○ Disadvantage: needs final product to begin ...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Pyruvate Decarboxylase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alcohol Dehydrogenase
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Fermentation ● Key steps in Glycolysis ○ Three steps have very large negative G’s are thus essentially irreversible (Steps 1, 3, and 10) ○ One step is an oxidation ○ Two s...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Triosephosphate Isomerase, Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate, Oxidative Phosphorylation
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Glycolysis ● Glycolysis - occurs in cytoplasm; major site of oxidation ● Getting energy from sugar or oxidizing carbon - similar to burning it ● Overview of Glycolysis ○ 1 glucose molecule → energy ...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Anabolism, Catabolism, Reactive Oxygen Species
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Metabolism ● Metabolism - all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell ● Most catalyzed by enzymes ● In pathway, regulating one enzyme is enough for the entire pathway ● Typically, first step of pat...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Dna Polymerase, Antifreeze Protein, Dna Ligase
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● Antifreeze proteins ○ Flat, hydrophilic (threonine-rich) face of molecule absorbs to surface of ice crystal ○ Hydrophobic face repels liquid water molecules, inhibiting further crystal growth ● Mucins ...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture 29: Photosynthesis
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Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture 28: ETC and ATP Synthase
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Biology
BIO 110
Clark
BIO 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 30: Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Ribose 5-Phosphate, Cogeneration
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rot on exam 3 Ethanol Mmmute system Nov. II Glucose AA cogen Glucose. R NADPH A Py vote ribose phosphate lactate Fatty acids A cet CoA Chol esteol Krebs A0Pt ATP AA H20 NAD NADH Ethanol Acetaldehyde a e Acetate CADM) CAUDH...

Biology
BIO 110
Clark

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