PH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Influenza Vaccine, Herd Immunity, Edward Jenner

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29 Apr 2018
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Lecture 21: Vaccines and Influenza
-Edward Jenner: father of vaccination
-Pasteur: first vaccine, for rabies, in 1885
-worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1977
-polio is on the verge of eradication, with the last known case in the US in 1979
-vaccines exist today for 26 infectious diseases
-herd immunity exists for some diseases, like tuberculosis in the US
-herd immunity is the ultimate goal of vaccines!!!!
-future of vaccines: HIV, malaria, biological warfare
-primary antibody response: the antibody concentration rises gradually and peaks about 2 weeks
after vaccination
-secondary antibody response: the antibody concentration rises quickly, and the response is more
intense. The antibody concentration remains higher for longer.
-common types of vaccines:
Inactivated vaccines
Live-attenuated vaccines
Subunit, recombinant vaccines
Toxoid vaccines
DNA vaccines
Adjuvants
-an adjuvant is a substance that is added to a vaccine to increase the body’s immune response to
the vaccine.
-active immunity: instilling into the recipient a modified form of the pathogen or material
derived from it that induces immunity to disease (long-term protection)
-passive immunity: instilling the products of the immune response (antibody or immune cells)
into the recipient (short-term protection)
-vaccination: injections of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body
against that organism. Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine.
-vaccine: the product that produces immunity from a disease
-immunization: the process by which a person becomes protected from a disease
-How do we decrease the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases?
Increase vaccination coverage
Increase vaccination effectiveness
-the world health organization (WHO) estimates the annual burden of influenza to be about 1
billion cases, 3-5 million cases of severe illness, and 300,000-500,000 deaths
-epidemics and outbreaks of the flu occur based on varying seasonal patterns, less pronounced in
tropical environments
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