PH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Respiratory Tract Infection

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29 Apr 2018
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Lecture 18: Air Pollution Monitoring in New York State and Rochester
-health impacts of air pollution: eye, nose, and throat irritation; aggravated asthma; respiratory
infection
-people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and lung disease at greater risk for these health
impacts of air pollution
-worldwide air pollution accounts for 25% of deaths and disease from lung cancer
-a primary air pollutant is a substance emitted directly into the atmosphere (like carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide)
-a secondary air pollutant is a substance formed in the atmosphere when a primary pollutant
reacts with substances normally found in the atmosphere (like ozone, nitrogen dioxide)
-sulfur dioxide is emitted from volcanic activity, forest fires, crude oil and coal transformation
-aerosol/particulate matter: mixture of solid particles and/or liquid droplets suspended in air.
Sources: sea spray, soil dust, pollen, traffic, heating, construction, etc.
-primary particulate matter: potassium, selenium, and arsenic.
-secondary particulate matter: sulfate, nitrate, ammonium.
-why do air pollutant concentrations vary over time?
Seasonal variation (day of the week variation, hour of day variation)
Weather conditions
-as wind speed decreases, concentration of pollutants increases
-mitigation strategies and action plans: reduce emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles and
electric power generation
-2007: US starts regulating emissions for buses and trucks
-2009: regional greenhouse gas initiative
-mitigation strategies have shown improvement
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