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Lecture 21

PSY 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Depersonalization Disorder, Depersonalization, PalpitationsPremium


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 101
Professor
Christopher Niemiec
Lecture
21

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Session 14.3 - Disorders II
- Four classes of disorders being examined: depressive disorders, anxiety disorders,
obsessive-compulsive disorders, and dissociative disorders)
Depressive Disorders
Depressive disorders: disorders involving persistent feelings of sadness, emptiness, or
irritability, often accompanied by changes in sleep, appetite, and mental processes
- Estimates that depressive orders are number one cause of disability in the world
Major depressive disorder: a condition characterized by episodes lasting at least two weeks
in duration in which there are persistent and profound feelings of sadness and despair
- Can lead to cognitive problems: poor concentration, low self-esteem, suicidal
thoughts
- Feelings must be long lasting and greatly impair everyday functioning to meet
diagnosis criteria: must have depression episode that lasts two weeks and include a
minimum of five additional symptoms
Photo retrieved from Revel Pearson Textbook - Figure 14.4
- Depression quite common: affects 6-7% of U.S. population, twice as many females
diagnosed
Dysthymia: type of depression that is milder, but more chronic than major depression
- Symptoms must have lasted two years in adults and one year in children
- Might experience two depression symptoms rather than 5
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Double depression: individuals with dysthymia experiencing periodic bouts of major
depressive disorder
Causes of Depressive Disorders
- Certain kinds of depression linked to very specific circumstances
o Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): affecting individuals who live in areas that
receive less daylight
o Postpartum depression: occurs in women within four weeks of delivering
baby caused by hormones
- Both biological and environmental factors play a role in mood disorders
o More likely to inherit if family member has it
o Stressful life events or traumatic life events
o Marital problems, family dysfunction
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders: a class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or
persistent state of apprehension, tension, and worry
Three specific categories: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and specific phobias
- 29% of U.S. experience anxiety severe enough to be classified as a disorder at some
point
- symptoms include extreme levels of nervousness and fear, usually appearing early
in life
- females twice as likely to experience anxiety disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive levels
of daily anxiety that interfere with global functioning
- overall feeling of worry, dread, tension, nervousness
- both physically and psychologically draining
examples: unnecessarily worrying child is in danger, unrealistic worries about money,
work, health, school
- possible cause: hypersensitive central nervous system
Panic Disorder
Panic disorder: an anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks and the subsequent fear
and anxiety of having additional attacks
- panic attacks: brief episodes of intense fear, including both cognitive and
physiological symptoms of discomfort
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