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Lecture 21

HIST 130 Lecture 21: March 31st
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Department
HIST - History
Course
HIST 130
Professor
Melissa Dale
Semester
Spring

Description
March 31st Monday, April 3, 2017 11:45 AM Outline: Two Visions for Saving China (1919 -1949) - Birth of GMD and CCP - Common Ground - The Nanjing Decade (1927 -1937) - War & Revolution Terms - Sun Yat-sen - Nationalist Party - Chinese Communist Party - Chen Duxiu - Li Dazhao - First United Front (1923-1927) - Chiang Kai-shek - Northern Expedition - White Terror, April 12, 1927 - Nanjing Decade (1927 -1937) - New Life Movement - Manchurian Incident (Mukden Incident) - Long March - Mao Zedong - 2 United front (1937 -1941) - Nanjing Massacre/Rape of Nanjing Birth of GMD & CCP - GMD: Nationalist Party; CCP: Chinese Communist Party - Chinese Nationalist Party o 1916, Sun Yatsen returns to China Calling for reunification of China (he fled to Japan in 1913 due to his political views) o Goal is to fight against “the betrayal of the Republic” by Yuen Shirkai o In August 1917 he sets up a revolutionary military gov’t in Canton o Oct. 10 1919 he becomes president of the Republic § Still, warlord governments hold a lot of power - CCP o After the Versailles peace conference and return of German holdings to Japan o Goal is to fight against “the betrayal of the Republic” by Yuen Shirkai o In August 1917 he sets up a revolutionary military gov’t in Canton o Oct. 10 1919 he becomes president of the Republic § Still, warlord governments hold a lot of power - CCP o After the Versailles peace conference and return of German holdings to Japan instead of China, many Chinese are very disillusioned with the west o Marxism’eninism holds a lot of appeal o Feel connected to Lenin’s theory of imperialism o July 1921, Communist Party is established o Led by Chen Duxiu & Li Dazhao § Very small at first… like 12 people Common Ground - Reorganization of GMD 1921 o Bolshevik Revolution also affects GMD o Also found Lenin’s theory of imperialism salient — knew the west wanted China fragmented o Wanted to learn from the soviet model and receive aid § Receive a rep from comintern (communist international) to advise them o 1923, CCP & GMD enter alliance - First United Front o 1923-1927 o Sun as national leader o A “marriage of convenience” —had common enemies of warlord s and imperialists, but not ideological similarities - Chiang Kai-Shek o Member of GMD o Ally of Sun Yatsen o 1923 put in charge of Army o Military training in Russia o Had returned from Whampoa Military Academy (which followed the Russian model) o Became Sun Yatsen’s successor after he unexpectedly died of cancer Bit of a power struggle among party factions at first, but he comes out § victorious - Northern Expedition, 1926 o Military campaign to capture warlord controlled areas in the North o Chiang Kai Shek was expedition leader o A mission from the nationalists to reunify China, but CCP helps a lot § They are very good at getting the peasants on their side o Seen as beginning of nationalist period in China o Highly successful § Brings Chiang a lot of prestige o Chiang Kai Shek was expedition leader o A mission from the nationalists to reunify China, but CCP helps a lot § They are very good at getting the peasants on their side o Seen as beginning of nationalist period in China o Highly successful § Brings Chiang a lot of prestige o Does raise questions over direction of revolution… for communists, social and economic goals have not been met, even though the Nationalists have met their political goals § Division: two capitals are set up, one by GMD one by CCP - White Terror April 12, 1927 o Purge of communists by Chiang Kai -Shek o Virtually decimated communists o Survivors flee to countryside of communists The Nanjing Decade - 1927-1937 - Nationalists want to start democratic and social reforms and focus on foreign policy - Optimism: seen as dawn of new era o people became more open to adopting western technologies o transportation, education, construction were all modernized o currency system unified o as early as 1929 though, they start to lose support § factionalism weakens their reign § disillusionment spreads § challenges: floods, refugees, great depression -
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