HSTAM 111 Lecture 5: Lecture Notes 5

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Ancient and Medieval History
Charity Urbanski

Lecture Notes 5 Wednesday, April 12, 2017 11 century reform movement (Gregorian Reforms) - Led by Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) - Focused on gregarious issues - Eliminate simony o Most bishops, clergy, etc. chosen by king o Kings expected monetary payment for these appointments - Ending clerical marriage o First attempt to eliminate in 7 c. o Priests, bishops, popes, etc. could be married o Nuns and monks did take vow of celibacy o Reasons for ending – church lands were passed through family, so offspring were getting lands o Doctrine of transubstantiation – that the bread and wine in mass is literally the body/blood of Christ once consecrated ▪ Became concerned about purity of priests that handle these materials ▪ Women were considered impure ▪ Sexual contact with women considered impure o Peter Damian argued for this (11 c) – church followers are clergy’s spiritual offspring o Took over a century to effect this change; causes misogyny - Misogyny o Paul of Tarsus & Tertullian – advocates feminine submission and celibacy o Augustine of Hippo (354-430) ▪ Formulates doctrine of original sin ▪ Argues that sex is only for procreation within marriage ▪ Lust/sexual passion is punishment for Adam & Eve’s sin ▪ Therefore being celibate is an act of resisting sin o Negative attitudes toward sex and
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