2012年 9 25日 上午 11:00
A. The study of communication is about how we influence each other.
a. Action/body language/ persuasion/ facial expression/ music/ family value/ money/ media/
B. How would you complete this statement?
a. "sticks and stones may break by bones, but..."
C. What does this statement really mean?
a. You can say whatever you want, but it is up to me to decide whether or not that's true, and what I
feel when I hear that.
D. "The pen is mightier than the…"
E. Two things to consider:
a. Because proverbs and other forms of "common sense" are often contradictory, we need more
thoughtful, flexible guides for getting alone.
F. EX: Rapeseed oil
G. High Fructose Corn Syrup --> Corn sugar
"You kinda become what you talk about".
A. How we express affection is an important aspect of our close relationships.
a. Expressing affection helps relationships grow in depth and meaning.
b. But kissing is also healthy for us.
i. Studies by Kory Floyd
ii. Reduced physiology level of stress
• Satisfaction with the relationship (kissing group increased)
• Perceived life stress (kissing group decreased)
• Total cholesterol (kissing group decreased)
Third Story: You can change the world
Each year, 3.7 million newborn babies die. An additional 3.3 babies are still born.
But...several leading causes can be preventable!
A. Skin to skin
B. Communication problem: getting information to people who need it.
C. Stillborn死產 --> reduction in almost 30%.
a. Training helped birth attendants to recognize.
Friday: 1~2 paragraphs, find ways to communicate in order to make the world a better place.
Ways of looking at communication
• Something as simple as the name we use can have a tremendous ------------------------------
• Common sense: leads to a quick, but ineffective response to a complex situation.
○ Communication is a discipline dating back to the ancient Greeks (rhetoric).
○ Social science research on communication increased over the past 60 years.
Describing the Communication Process
C. Transaction C. Transaction
• Models tell you what to look at - Where to look for problems, things you might change.
• The Action Model
Noise Noise Noise
Source Encodes Message (Channel)
Noise Noise Noise Receiver
A. Receiver/ decoding - who is the audience?
a. Decoding: the act of assigning meaning to a message.
b. Meanings are in people, not in messages.
c. Messages influence meanings, but do not fully control them.
1) Meanings are in our hands
2) Our brains like to create stories (we often add/ subtract to make a "good" story in our minds)
3) Most important skill in communication: Anticipating how others are likely to interpret what you say and do.
B. Source/ encoding - who is the source? Where did this message come from?
a. "Encoding"- the act of translating (expressing) inner thoughts and feelings into observable behavior.
b. Sources can be individuals, groups, institutions.
Not automatic, but often done automatically(low level of awareness).
1) You can communicate without knowing it.
2) Humans are "multicoders" - we are usually sending several messages simultaneously.
C. Messages - What is being said? Better: to what are receivers responding?
a. Anything that can register on others' senses can be a message.
b. Messages may be intention or unintentional.
c. Key thing to remember: the message you think you sent, may not be the one others received.
D. Channel - the medium through which the message moves from source to receiver.
a. Channels: face-to-face, phones, writing, internet, videogames, etc. (Channels are active!)
b. Channels: hearing, sight, touch, smell, taste.
c. Key thing to remember: channels influence what the message can be and how it will be interpreted.
1) Same messages/ different channels --> different meanings.
2) Hard to convey some messages in some channels.
3) Channel characteristics limit or shape the message.
E. Noise-Noise can be internal or external. What might interfere with the message reaching the receiver? What could
create noise in our example?
a. Channel noise (outside the message, other activities)
b. Internal noise - distractions insider the source or receiver (inside your head)
Source Encodes Receiver Decodes
Noise Noise Noise
Receiver Decodes Source Encodes
A. Feedback - any message the receiver creates in response to the source's original message. A. Feedback - any message the receiver creates in response to the source's original message.
a. Feedback links the source and receiver together in a cycle.
b. Source and receiver become interdependent - each person's behavior comes to depend on the other's.
1) Influence goes both ways
2) Interdependence can be so strong that pairs of people become linked physiologically! Example: Hugging.
B. We are sources and receivers.
TRANSACTION MODEL (add two additional factors)
A. All communication occurs in a context.
a. The physical and cultural setting influences the way people interpret messages.
b. Context "frames" interaction in ways we are not always aware of.
c. Each person may interpret the context in different ways.
d. We are influenced by our own messages - that is, we are receivers to our own messages.
1) Hearing what we say or watching ourselves act influences what we say and do next…
2) This means we get two types of feedback - external feedback from others, internal feedback from ourselves Lecture #2
2012年 9 27 日 上午 11:32
MAKING SENSE OUT OF MESSAGES
Oval diagram --------------------------
The Self --> Cultural influences and expectations --> Past experience with others, situation, object --> Others Present --> Nature of the
situation --> Perceptual mechanisms --> The thing being perceived perceived.
Can you identify…?
1. Some things that seem to be especially important- things you r senses automatically zoom in on?
2. Places where you are "filling in the gaps"?
3. Assumptions about the other person?
4. Cultural assumptionsabout what's really going on there?
Major steps in the perceptual process…
Selective attention --> selective perception (organization/ interpretation) --> selectivememory --> selectiveexposure --> selectiveattention
Selective exposure (what you seek)
From the momentyou wake, you make choose to expose yourself to some sources of information and some types of informationrather than
• Types of TV shows you never watch?
• Types of music you most and least listen to?
• Types of people you avoid and seek out?
• Parts of town (or the world) you avoid or seek out?
Reinforcementprinciple: we tend to seek information that agrees with our current views and avoid informationthat disagrees with them.
Selective attention (what you dwell on)
• The average American "consumes"about 34 Gigabytes or about 100,500 words per day.
• Because we cant give equal attention to everything, our attention has to be selective.
• Principles guiding where we place our attention:
○ Potential danger/ threat
○ Things that are comforting,that are in line with our desires and expectations (reinforcementprinciple).
○ Vividness, novelty ("the bright shiny object effect")
Selective Perception 選擇性知覺 (Organizing and interpreting perceptions)
• Once you orient to something, you next have to make sense of it. We do that through selective perception:
○ Organizing the stimuli into some pattern.
○ Interpreting them by relating them to past experiencesand expectations.
• All perception is thus influenced by the context.
• EX: Bread machines.
• EX: Restaurants often put very high priced items on the menu to provide a context for other items.
• Two people can interpret same "input" in very different ways. They observe the same thing but interpret it very differently.
• The reinforcementprinciple applies here, too: We tend to see, hear, and believe the things we want to see, hear, and believe.
Fallible Memory: capable of making mistakes or being in error.
• Do the eyes ever lie? Eyewitnessesare often wrong…
○ About 1/3 are incorrect.
○ In one study of 40 cases in which convictionswere overturned by later DNA evidence, 90% involved mistaken eyewitness
• But we still believe eyewitnesses...evenwhen they are wrong.
• Percentage of jurors who voted "guilty" when eyewitness testimonywas put in doubt by other evidence: 68 % (eyewitness--> huge jump,
although there's doubt in eyewitness)
• Other factors that can affect our memory of events:
○ Poor lighting, visibility.
○ Distractionsthat focus our attention away from the other person. (example of noise)
Example: having a weapon pointed at you.
Examples in everyday situations: pretty girls, sleep deprivation, hunger, boredom...etc.
Lessons from the lineup and more...
Bias in police lineups…
• Witness is not told explicitly that the guilty person may not be in the line up.
• Pictures are too different - allowing witnesses to instantly rule out many suspects.
• The person conducting the lineup knows who the suspect is and unconsciously signals it to the witness.
• Witness stereotypes about what kind of person would be most likely to commit the crime in question.
Communication 202F Page 4 • Witness stereotypesabout what kind of person would be most likely to committhe crime in question.
Ways to enhance your memory of everydaycommunication:
1. Easiest - use questions and paraphrasing to check your perceptions.
2. Focus on behaviors rather than emotionsor evaluations. (we usually focus on how we feel rather than the judgement, or whatmakes
how we feel)
3. Put events into a sequence or a story.. (music & rhyme help)
a. Chronological Order
b. Story form
c. Create a pneumonic ( 用一個口頭禪或諺語來幫助記憶 比如說 俄德法美日奧義英 , )
• We forget most of what happens, most of what we say or do.
• But we do so selectively...again, doing a better job at rememberingthings that reinforce our previous perceptions or perceptions that
were particularly striking.
Example: something really mean someonesaid to us.
• Memory is not fixed - it is like a book being revised by each new experience. So your memory of what happened today will change over
• Transaction memory:you cant rememberone thing, but you and your friends can rememberthat.
• You rewrite memories.EX: you broke up with someone,you felt painful at first, now you look back, your memory of that experience is
Selective exposure and selectiveattention and selectiveperception.
WYSIATI (What You See Is All There Is)
1. We like to think that we can overcomethe limitations of the selectiveprocesses if we just put our minds to it.
2. The "WYSIATI" principle casts
3. And this idea is not true, it's wrong!
You can’t just think hard and see what you didn't see before. What you don't see or hear does not exist for you.
EX: The Monkey Illusion
Communication 202F Page 5 Lecture #3
2012年10月4日 上午 10:42
Language and Meaning
Humans are the language animals.
1. Other animals communicate…
2. But human language- in its richness, variety, and flexibility - seems to be unique.
1. When did humans develop language?
2. What is language anyway?
3. Levels within language
4. What does language do?
5. Ways to improve your use of language
Origins of Language
• No one is certain, but best guess is our ancestors started making symbolicrepresentations
between 40-80,000years ago.
• No language, no life.
Much speculation about a helping hand from brain developmentor mutation.
• Specialized brain centers associated with language develop in this period. (Broca's and
• FOXP2 gene suggests it may be associatedwith language - speculation is that a mutation may
have occurred approximately50,000years ago.
Language developmentalso linked to growing social and cultural complexity in this period. (you can't
learn cultural complexity at home)
What is Language Anyway?
• All language communicates,but not all communicationis linguistic. (language is
communicative,but communicationis not necessary linguistic).
Definition of Language : a collection of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are
governed by rules and used to communicate.
Five Characteristics of Language:
1. Language is symbolic - it refers to or represents something else that it does not resemble.
2. Humans share a universal grammar that enables language acquisition among the very young.
Babies come hardwired to acquire language within the same window of time.
3. Language allows the generation of an infinite varietyof messages within a rule-governed
system (grammar).(creativitywithin a set of rule)
4. Languages lets us to communicateabout things not in the here and now. (temporal& spatial
a. Social coordination
b. Group cohesion (we signal membershipas a group through language)
c. Deception(lying, is fundamental to everyone)
5. Language works in conjunction with nonverbal codes to facilitate multi-faceted,even self-
b. Strategic ambiguity/ equivocation(sometimesthe best way to communicateis not to be
c. Conflicted messages. (because sometimeswe have contradictoryfeelings)
Four Levels of Language
1. Phonetic - the sounds of language. Every language has a distinct set of sounds. (ex: yall, 爽)
2. Semantic- words and word meanings. 2. Semantic- words and word meanings.
• Pairing two things: Inner meaning + arbitrary symbol
• EX: dog vs dawg (the actual fuzzy white puppy is the referent)
The pairing process is called semiosis and the study of it semiotics.Semiotics- the study of
how we connect symbolsand meanings.
• This changes the fastest.
Denotative vs. connotative meanings
a. Denotative meanings - the most used, mostagreed-upon meaning for word, like
b. Connotative meanings- my personalized meaning for a word, a meaning that reflects my
identity and experience. Your receiver'sconnotative will be different than yours.
EX: The word SEX, you have your own definition from all of your experience.
1. Syntactic (organizing of words into phrases, sentences)
a. Grammar:a set of rules and patterns for forming words into larger thought units such as
phrases and sentences.
b. Word order matters:
"I am going tomorrow"vs "Am I going tomorrow?"
c. But grammar is about more than just the order of the words. It is more about the
relationships among speaker, listener, objects, and actions.
i. Consider this phrase: "I love her cooking"
ii. Two lessons from this example:
1) Interpretation involvesmore than just the words.
2) We often leave out important aspects when we talk.
d. Changes the slowest.
2. Pragmatic-- refers to the way the social situation we're in affects our use of language. (using
language differently in different situations)
EX: Formality of the situation - job interview vs telling a friend about your day. You'd speak
What Does Language Do?
A. Language is our primary tool for influencing others.
B. Language is a primary tool for social bonding.
EX: wedding vows, pledge of allegiance., U.S. Citizenship Naturalization Ceremony.
C. Language also shapes the way we think and remember
• We often remember"in words" - that is, organize our memoriesas language ( your brain
thinks in language!)
• Language also influences the way we think and perceive - makes some things morevisible than
○ "Linguisitic determinism" - the idea that language determines the way you think. Sapir-
○ Example: Inuit (Eslimo)having 100 words for snow. Myth.
○ Today, researchers generally believe that language influences but does not rigidly
determine perception. (Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is incorrect) Lecture #4
2012年10月9日 上午 10:41
Language and Social Change
Gottard base tunnel: Link between France and Italy
Koro: A new language discovered
It is alive- it is always changing
It is intertwined with identity and culture.
Language is alive- responding to changes in culture over time
Languages split into different languages, coverage into create a new language.
1. Fueled by migration, isolation, invasion, colonization, communication.
2. The result is that there are between -----------------------------------
Many languages share common origins, creating language "families."
EX: Some are small, the Khoisan family includes about 30 languages with 100,000speakers in southern Africa.
Some are very large… The Sino-Tibetan Family: 1.2 billion.
Indo-European family includes about 150 languages and about three billion speakers.
• Language family with the most speakers: Indo-European
• Single language spoken by the most people: Mandarin Chinese
• Single language spoken in the greatest number of countries: English
Differences in language are so important that people fight over them.
• Continuing political divisions and tensions in Quebec between English speakers and French-Canadian speakers. (Montreal)
• Urdu speaking West Pakistan and Bangla speaking East Pakistan went to war, separating into Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971.
Dialect- a form of a language that shares much with the "original" language but differs in many ways as well.
Speakers of different dialects will sometimes have difficulty understanding each other.
EX: Black English, Appalachian English.
Sometimesdialects evolve into separate languages - French and Italian come from dialects of Latin.
So what's the difference between a language and a dialect?
• No clear line between a dialect and a language…
• Calling something a dialect is about politics and culture as much as language.
○ Black English- is it a dialect or just poor English?
• Discussions about language vs. dialects come down to power…
Linguist Max Weinreich (1945) - "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy." Whoever has the most power determine the
Sometimesregional differences grow to become dialects. EX: Appalachian English.
...more likely if the region is isolated.
But there are also many smaller regional differences or "regionalisms"
a. Carbonated beverage - coke, pop, or soda.
b. Sandwich - sub, torpedo, hoagie grinder.
Jargon (行話 專業用語 )and technical talk
Language is often specialized to facilitate discussion of technical issues in professional, hobby, sports, and other settings.
EX: legal language, medical language, ski jargon.
Jargon is not bad. It does 2 good things for the groups that use it:
a. Makes communication more precise, informative.
b. Enhances group cohesion- feeling of belonging when you share the same jargon. IT MAKES YOU FEEL LIKE YOU ARE PART OF THE
GROUP. Specialized relationship talk (a special case of jargon)
Dialects and jargon are applied to relative large groups- but this is specialized language for just one relationship.
Like other specialized language, specialized relational talk:
a. Makes communication easier, more precise.
b. Reinforces the relationship by making a boundary, by making it special.
Slang and colloquialisms
Informal language used by people who belong to the same group or share an interest. Sharing slang reinforces group membership-
who's in, who's not.
Slang is hard to separate from technical jargon - but generally less precise, more informal.
Difficult to separate sometimesfrom technical jargon - but generally less precise, more informal
EX: carbon footprint, staycation, mashable, social fruitfly, Tweet
All language changes - slang(meaning of a word: semantic) fastest, grammar (syntactic) slowest.
Language is intertwined with identity and culture
Language and identity are connected.
Does that mean that if you change the way you use language, you are changing who you are?
Should we be concerned when an entire language goes extinct?
Roughly 50% of the world's about 6,000-7,000 languages are in real danger of being lost.
a. Either they are not being replaced because the last native speakers are dying off.
b. Or speakers are switching to more widely used languages like Chinese, English, Hindi, and Spanish.
Two things we lose if a language goes extinct: history, emotions, and cultures.
Two things we gain if a language goes extinct: broader/similar understandings, more efficient, peaceful relationship among people,
more unified cultural world.
Dialect is about a whole bunch of terms. Regionalism is part of a dialect. Lecture #5
2012年10月11日 上午 10:42
Beyond Words: Nonverbal Communication
I. Overview and Major themes…
• Briefly identify major types of nonverbal "codes"
• Explain why nonverbal communicationis different from language.
• Briefly explore two application:
○ Use of touch in groups
○ Spotting lies (deception)
II. Six Major Types of Nonverbal Codes.
Body movementand facial expression
A. Called kinesics codes - Includes facial expressions, movements,postures, gestures. Think
Five major types:
a. Affect displays
1. Affect displays - (affect emotion)displays of emotion on the face, but may involve other parts
of the body as well.
a. Capable of many thousand- but all are variations on these six basic emotionaldisplays. (anger,
happy, fear, sad, shock, disgusted)
b. These basic emotionsare displayed the same way in all cultures (though what triggers them
c. May also involve body changes - blushing, stomping feet, etc.
2. Emblems- usually gestures that have more or less standardized meanings and can substitute
for words. (EX: the yeah sing, okay sign, middle finger)
a. Emblems can stand only without speech, illustrators can't.
3. Illustrators - gestures that go with and reinforce verbal messages, serve to emphasize a verbal
a. (Speech and illustrators go together) illustrators are closelylinked to speech- both
processed in same area of brain.
b. Link is so close that we make illustrators even when the person we're speaking to can't
4. Adaptors- nonverbal movementsinvolving touching one's own body.
a. Thought to be related to anxiety or attention to some other inner state. (concentrating
on other things else other than the communicationthat is going on now)
b. You are touching yourself is showing something about you.
5. Regulators- nonverbal movementthat control the pace or direction of interaction.
a. It regulates/ controlsinteraction.
b. Something that you do when you are communicating with you friends that changes the
way you are going to response/ communicatenext.
c. EX: Before class, students start packing. And the ultimate in nonverbal regulation…
Dance. Also - coordination between athletes improvising plays. When talking to
someoneelse, you take turns to speak, and when to stop/pause is done nonverbally. someoneelse, you take turns to speak, and when to stop/pause is done nonverbally.
B. Proxemics- the use of space and distance to send messages.
a. Like many other animals, humans maintain individual and group territory (EX: putting a
sign on the bedroom to claim that this room is yours and other people shouldn't come
b. Personal space- the invisible bubble of space we like around us to be comfortable.
Differs depending on the situation and relationship.
c. ….from intimate to public distance
d. Intimate zone (45 cm) --> friend zone (1.2m)--> social zone(3.6m) --> audience zone.
e. Intimate distance (o to 18'') --> personal distance (18'' to 4ft) --> social distance
(4-12ft.ormore) --> public distance (12 ft. or more)
f. Proxemicscodes are very sensitive to individual, genders, and cultural differences.
C. Chronemics - the organization and use of time for communication.
a. Includes our expectationsfor how time should be organized - one activity at a time
(monochromic)vs. multi-tasking with several activities at once (polychromic).
b. Expectationsabout how long events should last… (EX: how long do you have to stay at
the family dinner table after finishing dinner before you can leave?)
c. Expectationsabout how quickly something should happen.. (EX: how long can you delay
responding to a text or voice message?)
D. Tactile (things involving touch) Communication:communicating using touch
a. The first communicationcode we learn.
b. Touch from caregivers is essential for babies and infants to thrive.
c. Touch is important both in rituals (laying on the hands) and in expressing support and
d. Large cultural and gender differences in the use of touch.
i. Women touch and are touched more often.
ii. Large cultural differences in touch (Spanish, French > U.S. > Japan)
e. Touch also conveyspower. The morepowerful touch the less powerful- so being
touched inappropriately is linked to abuse and discrimination.
E. Paralinguistic Cues - vocal but nonverbal
a. Includes pitch, rate, inflection, volume, pronunciation, silence, etc.
b. We often judge people according to these factors. (Think that ppl who speak slow is
stupid, ppl who talk fast shouldn't be trust)
i. Slow/ fast
ii. Loud/soft -- influences our attention, judgments of intimacy, power.
c. Can be sounds alone (cries, laughing, sigh), but usually accompanyspeech.
F. Objects and artifacts (also called artifactual codes)
a. We make many judgments about individuals and groups based on the objects and
artifacts associatedwith them. (clothes)
b. Personal artifacts such as hair styles and jewelry,including body art (taboos, piercing)
c. Also includes the way our rooms and homes are decorated as well as the objects in
d. Also judge a city or a culture by its characteristicartifacts, public artifacts.
G. Summary: 6 Major types of codes
1. Body movementand facial expressions:kinesics
3. Chronemics (time)
4. Tactile communication
6. Objects and artifacts
III. How does Nonverbal communication differs from verbal communication?
A. Is nonverbal communicationlike a language of the body? Do we interpret it like language?
B. The answer is no - there is no "body language" B. The answer is no - there is no "body language"
1. Language is more standardized in usage.
2. Language has inner structure - grammar and words that nonverbals do not.
3. We generally exert less conscious control over body movement,facial expressions, and
paralingistics than we do over words.
4. Very few nonverbal expressions can be simply translated into words (only emblems)
Don’t try to read people like a book
IV. Two applications to think about…
1. Can you spot lies? Are there reliable cues that signal deception?
i. Many have been suggested:
1) Breaking eye contact
2) Rolling eyes up
3) Fidgeting - calm voice / nervous hands or legs
4) Variations in voice -- little tremors
5) Licking the lips
6) Long pauses
ii. Right now approximatelyover 160 airports in the U.S. are using SPOT which relies
on watching for nonverbal signs that someonemight be a security threat, might be
iii. Many businesses use lie detectors and a host of other techniques to test
iv. The question is : does scientific research prove that any of these really work?
1) The answer is : no
2) Humans are poor lie detectors
3) No technology has been shown to boost lie detectionmuch above chance.
2. The bonding and supportive power of touch…
i. Touch encourages: students who receive a supportive touch on the arm from a
teacher are morelikely to volunteer commentsin class as those who did not.
ii. Touch calms: Research shows touch eases pain and reduces depression.
iii. Touch communicatesmany feelings: In one recent study volunteerswere told to
try to express a list of emotionsto a blindfolded strangers. Most of the time they
iv. Touch bonds and makes groups moreeffective. Michael Kraus and his colleagues
tracked how often the membersof NBA teams touched, bumped, high5'd during
the games. Lecture #6
2012年10月16日 上午 10:30
Clarity, Ambiguity, and Complex Messages
Everything happens at once…
Humans are unique in their ability to communicatein so many different ways at the same time.(multi-
Four basic ways that codes can be related
1. One code can repeat or duplicate another - either could stand alone.
a. Holding up three fingers while saying. "Yes, 3 cups of coffee" (saying bye and waving at the
2. One code can emphasize another (make more or less intense)
a. Raising your voice while saying, "This is really important!"
b. Looking sad while saying, "You hurt my feelings."
3. One code can complement another- neither can stand alone, need both to interpret message.
a. How all the pieces of a "look" with clothing and jewelry fit together. (EX: 龐克風:all the
pieces must go together)
4. One code can contradict another.
a. Saying "I'm not mad anymore"in a still angry voice
b. Looking at your watch while telling the other person you want to hear what they have to
Clarity and Ambiguity- Is clarity always best?
"If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do
will be impossible for them."
- Perfect clarify is divine --> only god can do this.
So what makes a message unclear? Ambiguous?
Suppose someoneasks how things are going with a romantic partner. And suppose you don't really want
to say, but have to say something.
My response:Hmmmm,as usual.
Four ways to be ambiguous or unclear…
1. Content is contradictoryor difficult to interpret.
a. "We're fine" "No problems to speak of"
2. Ambiguous if it is not clear that the opinions being expressed are those of the speaker.
a. "Most people say we are doing well" "We are doing better than Jane and Jeff" (unclear
about the sources, making comparison without putting your own opinion in this)
3. Create uncertainty about whether y our message is intended for the listener
a. Give a verbal response, but also avoid eye contact or make it unclear that the response was
really directed at the person asking the question. (usually easier on electronic
4. Give an indirect answer or one that changes the topic.
a. "Well, we're going to Becky's party on Saturday."
Clarity is generally good, but are there situations where it helps to be ambiguous?
- Trying to host a surprise party
1. Politeness-you don’t want to lie, but being completelyhonest would hurt someone'sfeelings.
a. Do you like this outfit? Ans: You know I really like that sweater (meaning: too bad that didn't
go with your outfit)
b. "Politenessis the art of choosing among your thoughts." - Madamede Stael
2. Self-protection- you don’t want to lie, but being completelyhonest would lead to criticism or
3. Maintaining privacy- an open response would violate privacy of an individual or relationship.
4. Your feelings are still unsettled; trying to be too clear forces you to make decisions before you are
a. When your feeling is unsettled, you response will be unsettled.
5. Managing receiverswith conflicting expectations. (letting different people "read in" the meaning
a. EX: facebookpost- a status that different friends will interpret differently.
。We are "multi-coders"-communicatingin many ways at the same time
。Codes can fit together in different ways: repeating, emphasizing, complementing,and contradicting.
。This complexity creates opportunities for ambiguity.
。Several different ways to be ambiguous- we noted four.
。Clarity is good, but not always. We saw five reasons why ambiguous is sometimethe best choice.
Two Systems for interpreting Messages
1. System 1 vs. System 2
2. Dual- process theoriesof persuasion
Librarian --> farmers --> lessons: stereotypesare instantly available to us.
$0.1 --> 0.5
b.--> Bank teller only
System 1 - Automatic evaluation based on pre-set assumptions
1. Instinctive直覺的,automatic mental programming based on stereotypes,pre-existing
assumptions and beliefs.
2. Happens almostinstantly.
3. Usually not questioned or examined.
a. Our stereotypesabout librarians.
b. Our quick math: $1.10 is a dollar more than a dollar.
c. Our stereotypesabout feminists.
System 1- the largely automatic level of information processing that has evolvedto help us respond
quickly. It is shared with other animals.
System 2 - Slower, more effortful, deliberate processing.
1. What we mean when we think about "thinking"
2. Can over-ride the errors of System 1.
3. But is slow, takes effort, and is not automaticallytriggered.
We can't be sure, but only humans seem to be able to do System 2. (and we don't even do it all the time)
1. The idea isn’t to make you feel bad - it is to help us all recognize our own limitations.
2. We can only make corrections once we recognize that we automaticallydefault to a world of
unexamined assumptions, stereotypes,and easy answers.
a. Knowing our limitations helps.
You can also use mental reminders that help. Tell or ask yourself:
• How commonis each choice generally in the world- farmers vs. librarians? (baseline information)
• Slow down - do the math.
• What are the exceptions to my stereotypes?Could the opposite be true?
Persuading others more effectively.
Two pathways- peripheral (system 1 ) and central (system 2) Is my listener motivatedto process my message in depth?
。Yes: System 2 is at work…
• Help listener by helping to eliminate distractions
• Promptthe listener to bring in prior knowledge
• Use logical arguments supported by evidence
。No: System 1 is at work…
• Portrayyourself as an expert
• Focus on being attractive
• Phrase your message in terms of stereotypes,mental shortcuts.
• Appeal to listener's emotions.
System 2 is slow, hard. When possible take advantage of listener's tendency to fall back on the simple
A. Make your message vivid- bright, shiny, unusual, memorable
B. Avoid complexlanguage. Try not to sound too smart.
C. Use rhythm and rhyme of possible.
D. If you quote a source - choose one with a name that's easy to pronounce. (Stock sales for Turkish
company- Mr.Artan vs. Mr. Taahut)
E. Draw on listeners' stereotypeswhenever possible. Lecture #7
2012年10月18日 上午 10:34
What's in a name?
Juliet: "What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet."
"Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose."
The power of naming
• how the names we give, or the words we choose can shape our experience of a person, an
idea, an event or a product.
• Those who can assign names have the most power.
Exercise: first five words that come to mind when you hear a word.
2) Hip hop
• Connotative meaning: personal meaning.
These examples illustrate four important ideas:
1. Each word, each perception instantly triggers a flood of associations in the brain (System 1).
a. It happens very very rapidly.
b. We have little consciouscontrol over it.
2. These associationsdon't reveal inner secrets, but they do show the other words and ideas that
are most easily available to you once you think of the first word or idea. (and we tend to use
what's most available to us-->冰箱理論).
3. No two people will have exactly the same set of associations(though there may be some
a. Overlaps more commonwhen people have close, long relationships. (e.g., completing
each other's sentences)
b. Overlaps more commonamong people who share the same culture (and same pattern
of media consumption)
4. The associations you have for a particular word or idea are part of your meaning for it. ]
Affective meaning - words are feelings
Most words provoke feelings, they create emotional responses.
• Whenever you encounter a word, person, or object, you assign meaning along 3 dimensions:
1) Evaluative: good bad
2) Potency潛能:strong weak (whether the object is strong or weak, not your feeling toward
the object is strong or weak)
3) Activity:active passive
• When we are naming, we are making judgments.
• You can map the affectivemeanings of nearly anything into it, words, products, people, ideas.
Sources try to take advantage of our automatic, emotional associations. (advertisement)
By using names or associationslinked to positive meanings.
1. Celebrity endorsement背書s(EX: John Elway, Snoop Lion) 1. Celebrity endorsement背書s(EX: John Elway, Snoop Lion)
2. Advertisers and marketersoften just make up names that feel good emotionally,but don’t
really mean anything.
a. EX: apartment names (Oak Garden Estate)
3. Little things matter when creating positive emotionalassociations…
a. Use sounds that require speakers to open the mouth wider:
i. Good: Omega, America
ii. Bad: Tee, integrity.
b. Pick a name that has a "plosive" sound (products that do are moresuccessful)
i. P - Prozac, Puma
ii. F - Fiesta
iii. K - ??
c. Strategy -- negative adds or distraction. (EX: hand-held coca cola)
Two closingpoints about the power of names:
• For people living in small villages, a single name is enough. But as villages gave way to towns
and complex,independent societies,we got more complexnames and identifiers.
• Family name, given name
• Official ID numbers: passport, social security, etc.
• Screen names and passwords
• Internet domain names (.com/ .edu/ .mil/ .net)
More complex group, more complexname.
• A final proof of the importance names can be seen in the economicvalue of brand names and
EX: The word "Nike" - estimatedvalue $7 billion. The word "Apple".
Context in Communication
EX: A 13 C vs 12 13 14 --> Context counts!
The order of the description of the woman matters!!
• A classic study by SolomonAsch: Peopleresponded more favorably on average, to the first
sequence than to the second.
• Halo Effect: The tendency to over-simplyour view of others.
○ If we think positivelyabout a person, then we place less weight on negative information.
○ If we think negatively about a person, then we place less weight on positive information.
• Priming 引發- the first few pieces of informationyou receive to shape your response to later
• Priming - first impressionshave more influence than later impressions.
• Priming affects both behavior and emotional responses to others.
An example of selectiveperception Lecture #8
2012年10月23日 上午 10:32
Self- Concepts and Communication
How we see ourselves shapes how we perceive everyother aspect of communication
1. What self-concepts are.
2. How they are formed through communication.
3. How they influence the way we communicate.
What are self-concepts?
Definition: All the answers you give to the question, "Who am I?"
Some research findings…
Madson & Tafimowfound that:
Use statementsabout personal qualities do not relate to other people (EX:I like to play
Use more statementsabout groups they belong to (EX:I like to play basketball with my friends)
Use more statementsthat relationships with others (EX: I am kind to others)
Keep in mind: these are statistical trends and will not apply to all men and women.
• The longer you think about yourself, the likely you find some flaws, and the more you are
judgmental about yourself.
• The evaluative componentof self-concepts is called self-esteem (ones that are judgmental).
Two more key points about self-concepts:
1. Different situations bring out different self-concepts…
• Different with family than with friends
• Different online than Face-to-Face (especially anonymousonline settings)
• Different at different times even with same person
2. Some self-concepts are more important to us than others…and Self-concepts change over
Where do Self-Concepts and Self-esteem judgments come from?
Born with them?
Born with characteristics, but the meaning we give them comesfrom our communication.
• Self-concepts are the "residue" of all the messages we have received.
You are your communication!
Five sources of Self-Concepts and Self-Esteem
1. Direct Feedback from Others
a. What others say directly to or about us. "Memorablemessages"
b. Grades, awards, other kinds of behavior directed at us as feedback
2. Indirect or Implicit Feedback from Others
a. What we imagine others think of us based on how they act
b. What we infer based on how they respond to us
c. So this is an inference, a meaning we assign (even if we don't think they are trying to
3. Media Images
a. Important source of standards for how we should look and act
b. However,media images are themselveshighly manipulated.
c. Notice: even our sense of our physical bodies is shaped by our communication(the dove
4. Social Roles
a. A role is a package of ways of thinking, acting, and relating to others.
b. When we "play" a role, it becomes part of us. b. When we "play" a role, it becomes part of us.
c. We learn roles- training, imitation,modeling.
d. Staying "in role" is socially rewarded; failing to do the role "properly" is punished. (a
person didn't take his weight in a group project)
5. Social Comparison
a. How we think we compare to others.
b. Media provide many points of comparisons,but so do people we meet face to face.
Two ways that our self-concepts influence your communication…
1. Choice of people to communicatewith. (social network, people you have contact with,
2. The way you interpret their messages.
We prefer to associate with people who are like us.
1. A form of selectiveexposure- seeking contact with people who are similar to us.
2. We prefer those with similar: ago, ethnicity, economicposition, political beliefs, tastes,
• There are exceptions,but think of how you choose friends, select people when you want
advice, select coworkersto hang out with.
• The reinforcementprinciple - we refer to associate with people who will accept us - that is,
who reinforce our existing self-concepts. (both positive and negative).
• EX: Political bloggers: nearly all links were between people who basically already agreed with
each other. (meaning that they pretty much link to the people who they agree with)
Self-concepts shape how we interpret messages…
The attractive and unattractive scale: we are generally rejecting things that do not agree with us.
Two processes at work here:
1. Assimilation effect- ignoring small differences between message and our self-concept. 6 to 6.5
2. Contrast effect - treating larger differences as if they are even bigger than they actually are.
Using mental strategies to reject others' messages (usually stronger):
a. By challenging source's motives
b. By challenging source's expertise
c. By saying the circumstancesare unusual
d. By simply ignoring or forgetting
Thus we generally select others for interaction and interpret their messagesso as to reinforce our
existing views of ourselves.
• Doesn't matter if your self-image is positive or negative.
• This explains why self- concepts are so hard to change.
• Think: If you had a friend who spoke to you in the same way that you sometimesspeak to
yourself. How long would you allow that person to be your friend?
So how do our self-concepts actually change?
1. Small increments (small steps, takes time)
2. Number of messages (so if a lot of people say that you are very pretty, then you probably with
start to think that you are a little bit prettier)
3. Variety of sources - especially those who support new self-image.
4. Conscious effort to override our own defenses, such as
a. Seek unbiased assessments
b. Focus on counter-exam