ESS 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Magnetic Declination, Mass Wasting, Graph Paper

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Topographic maps permit measurement of the slope, defined as the change in vertical distance divided by the horizontal distance (rise over run). The gradient of a slope is most often expressed as a change in vertical height (measured in feet or meters) compared to the horizontal length of the sloping surface (measured in miles or kilometers) Relief refers to the difference between the highest and lowest point in a given area. Relief can be expressed either numerically (e. g. a mountain has 865 ft of relief above the valley floor), or in a relative sense (e. g. a plain would have low relief while a mountain range would have high relief). To better visualize topography, it is often advantageous to construct a topographic profile, which presents a side-view, or cross-section, of the earth"s surface. This scale indicates that 1 inch on the map represents __________ inches on the.

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