HSTAM 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Transubstantiation, Fourth Council Of The Lateran, Catharism

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Lecture Notes 9
Wednesday, April 26, 2017
Result of anxiety attempt to establish 3 orders
- Bellatores (fighters)
- Oratores (prayers)
- Laboratores (workers)
- Conservative resistance to change
Heretics
- History
o First century after Christ no such thing as heresy b/c there was no formal
institution to define orthodoxy
Early followers did have opposing positions
o End of 2nd century Irenaeus, bishop of Lyones
Sees what seems to be a “dangerous variety of positions arising”
Attempts to establish orthodoxy Adversus Haereses (against heresies)
Claims that there is only one true church; any others lose all hope
of salvation
Those who defy should be expelled and destroyed
o Conversion of Constantine (313) + legalizes Christianity (among a few others)
Results in many people converting
o Theodosius (380) makes Christianity the official religion of Roman Empire
o Early 5th c. church actively defines orthodoxy + heresy
After 5th c. heresy ceases to be a significant concern
o 11th c. during Gregorian Reforms, heresy becomes a major church
preoccupation
- Heresy thought to be a disease; that it threatened eternal life of self + others
- Factors influencing
o Increase in popular piety, causing some to question it
o New teachings and practices (e.g., transubstantiation, ending clerical celibacy)
new practices met with a lot of resistance
o Church becomes more powerful + intrusive
o Anxiety over wealth + power (church becomes really wealthy to fund crusades)
- What determines heresy can oppose church practices as long as they’re obedient
o Must preach with permission of pope
- Anticlerical against special status of church (can achieve salvation w/o clergy)
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