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PSYCH 101 (308)
prat (13)
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Language.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 101
Professor
prat
Semester
Spring

Description
 Single evolutionary criteria that allowed humans to be as sophisticated as we are today  We can pass on things that it took us a lifetime to learn  Transmitting thoughts from brain to brain  Language, our spoken, written or gestured work is the way we communicate meaning to ourselves and others. Semantics: Extracting Meaning from Language  110-150 words (or meaning units) per minute in a constant stream of speech  To “comprehend” a listen must… o Identify words (word boundaries)  Word boundaries is perceptual. o Access contextually appropriate meaning of words  Words can have multiple meanings (i.e. bear VS bare, o Understand how the order of words influences their meaning  i.e. the boy kissed the girl VS the girl kissed the boy o Understand the intention of the speaker Decomposing Language  Phone: basic speech sound o Any sound that is used in any of the languages of the world (about 870 total)  Phoneme: meaningful speech sound o Changes the world o Example: “h” (aspiration) is a phoneme in English. “At” and “hat” mean something different in English BUT they don’t in French or Italian. Grammar: Rules for Language  Morphemes: smallest meaningful unit o “s” o “ed” o “ing”  Syntax: word order rules o i.e. the girl kissed the boy VS the boy kissed the girl o Good example of procedural knowledge Pragmatics (Set of Cues)  Social rules for learning language o Formality is encoded in the language o Intention: “can you open the door?” Q: In English, the words jump and jumped differ by…  One phoneme, one morpheme Spoken VS Written Language  Spoken: o Innate, learned automatically o Involves articulation and auditory segmentation o Involves auditory cortex bilaterally in the temporal lobe o Children learn to speak as long as they are exposed to language  Written: o Must be learned explicitly o Involves pattern recognition//also involves vision, letter and word recognition o Grapheme/phoneme matching o Involves occipital and parietal lobe o Will never be learned automatically Q: What is the BIGGEST difference between speaking and reading?  How they are learned (how you acquire
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