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Nature VS Nurture.docx

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University of Washington

Review Questions from Midterm #1  If you suspect that your roommate is suffering fro man anxiety disorder, you might suggest that she sees a _______. If she needs medication, she will ultimately be referred to a _______.  Clinical psychologist, psychiatrist  (Stressed out = counseling)  Your undergraduate research thesis finds that the amount of sleep students get is negatively correlated with the number of units in which they enrolled correlation = .44. What is true?  You can infer that poor sleep quality is caused by a heavy course load.  These findings reveal a weaker relationship between sleep and course load than a study at a international university  Knowing how many units a student is enrolled in will help you predict how much sleep they are getting  In a simplified model, Neuron C receives input signals from Neuron A and Neuron B. which of the following is NOT a property of Neurons A and B that will affect the firing patterns of Neuron C?  The firing rates of A and B (number of action potentials per second)  Whether A fires alone or both A and B fire together  The intensity of the action potentials of both A and B  Whether A and B form excitatory or inhibitory connections with C  Your friend has just learned that she will need to wear a patch over one eye for a week. Which of the following cues will NOT be available to her while she’s wearing the patch?  Relative size  Retinal disparity  Interposition  Linear convergence Heredibility Example: The Smiths  What extent of their traits are attributed to their parents’ genes VS being raised in a show business environment.  Why does older son have reduced fame compared to the younger 2?  Is it because only one parent is an actor OR because he wasn’t raised in the environment. Genes + Nature: Our Codes for LIFE  We have rich coding o Strands of DNA made up of chromosomes from parents o Genes make proteins that eventually give rise to characteristics  We each have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) The Human Genome:  20,000 to 25,000 Genes  Tiny genetic variations make a BIG difference o .001 percent difference in genome, your DNA would not match the crime scene or you are not the baby’s father o 0.5 to 4 percent different in a genome, you may be a chimpanzee o 50 percent difference in genome, you might be a banana   How Do We Study the Effects of Nature VS Nurture  Behavioral genetics: study HERITABILITY of behaviors  Infers information  How likely you are to have certain psychological traits  Molecular genetics: look for specific genes that are responsible for certain traits.  Mapping variations of genes with certain behaviors Behavioral Genetics + Heredity  Behavior Geneticists study our differences and weigh the relative effects of heredity and environment  Heredity: an estimate of the percentage of variance in some facet of behavior that is due to genes (nature)  Does not explain percentage in an individual.  Studies variability in a population Twin + Adoption Studies  Identical twins and fraternal twins have similar environments  Identical twins have perfect similarity  Which of the following comparisons can tell us the most about heritability? o Comparing identical twins raised together with fraternal twins raised together. Because shared environment o Comparing fraternal twins raised together with siblings raised together Separated Identical Twins  A number of studies compared identical twins reared separately from birth, or close thereafter, and found numerous similarities  Separated Twins have been shown to be very similar o Personality, Intelligence** these two especially o Abilities, Attitudes o Interests, Fears o Brain Waves, Heart Rate   Critical Thinking  Critics of separated twin studies note that such similarities can be found between strangers  Could just be coincidence  Environments of adoptive families tend to be more similar to one another than a random sampling of families  Tend to be of middle to upper class background, often older population that couldn’t have children of their own  Researchers point out that differences between fraternal twins are greater than identical twins Twin “Concordance” Rates  Alcoholism rates in females very similar – larger opportunity for environment  Alcoholism in males stronger effect of heritability  Autism in identical males very strong, very long in fraternal  Schizophrenia very heritable Heritability Estimates  To study heritability they study populations that vary on degree of environmental and genetic overlap and come up with a percent…  Temperament .60  Intelligence .45 (children) .85 (adults)  Personality Traits o Neuroticism .41 o Extraversion .53 o Openness .61 o Agreeableness .41 o Conscientiousness .44 Does the Environment Matter?  YES!! What you inherit is often an ability or predisposition to react to the environment in a certain way.  What you inherit is usually a range to benefit from environment  We have looked at how genes influence our developmental differences. What about the environment? How do our early experiences, our family, our community and our culture affects these differences? Nurture  Adoption studies Experience + Brain Development  Early postnatal experiences affect brain development  i.e. locking a child in a closet// will not be exposed to language  Rosenzweig showed that rats raised in enriched environments developed thicker cortices than those in impoverished environment. Experience and Faculties  Early experiences during development in humans shows remarkable improvements in music, languages, and the arts  Children more likely to learn at a young age Parenting, Peers, & Culture Nature/Nurture Interactions  Genes are expressed only in certain environments o Even at genetic level, there are different things that trigger genes  Certain heritable traits (ie extraversion) will cause you to seek out different environments o Ie extraversion have lower excitability level, so seek out adventure  Certain heritable traits (ie attractiveness) will cause people to treat you differently o Ie tall VS short o Assumptions about you How Much Blame (Credit) Do Parents Deserve?  Although raised in the same family, some children are greater risk takers  Average parents give themselves too much blame/credit for their children Is Parenting a Powerful Environmental Influence on Development?  All environmental influences, including parenting, account for about 10% of variability in temperament (higher for values)  “Extreme” parenting increases this, including severe neglect and abuse Parenting “Control” Styles  Aut
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