CMN 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Passive-Aggressive Behavior, Collectivism

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12 Dec 2016
Lecture 14 - Face Negotiation Theory
- face negotiation theory = predict and explain cultural differences in responses to
- ppl of every culture are always negotiating face
- believes the facework of individualistic cultures are different from the facework
of ppl from collectivistic cultures
- believes face maintenance is the crucial intervening variable that ties culture to
ppl’s ways of handling conflict
- causal claim:
Type of culture type of self-construal type of face maintenance type of conflict
1) individualism-collectivism = the degree to which members of a culture are
integrated into groups
- main distinction is how both cultures perceive “self, goals, and duty”
- individualistic culture = wherein ppl look out for themselves and their immediate
families; I-identity, a low-context culture
- ties between individuals are loose
- individual goals prevail over group goals
- behavior is governed by the personal rules of a freewheeling self that’s
concerned with individual rights rather than group responsibilities
- “i” consciousness
- collectivistic culture = wherein ppl identify with a larger group that is responsible for
providing care in exchange for group-loyalty; we-identity; a high-context culture
- ppl are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups
- group goals prevail over individual goals assuming in the long run that each
individual decision affects everyone in the group, therefore a person’s behavior is
controlled by the norms of the group
- “we” consciousness
- self-construal “self-image”= the degree to which ppl conceive of themselves as
relatively autonomous/independence from, or connected to, others
- ppl within a culture differ on the relative emphasis they place on individual self-
sufficiency or group solidarity
- individual level individualism-collectivism independent vs. interdependent
- indicator of within-cultural differences better predictor of conflict styles
than ethnic/cultural background
- biconstural = a person’s self-image is embraced by both interdependence and
Assessment of Self-Construal
- Example survey questions to measure self-construal (1: strongly disagree; 7: strongly
- My personal identity, independent of others, is important to me
- I act as a unique person, separate from others
- I am careful to maintain harmony in my group
- I would sacrifice my self-interests for the benefit of my group
2) Face and Facework
- face = the projected image of one’s self in a relational situation
- metaphor of our self-image; the way we want others to see us and treat us
extension of self-concept; a “vulnerable, identity-based resource”
- face concerns = whose face does a person want to save, protect or honor?;
regarding for self-face, other-face, or mutual-face
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