CMN 120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Speech Disfluency, Nonverbal Communication, Peace Symbols

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8 Mar 2017
Lecture 3 - 1/23 Nonverbal Communication
- Nonverbal communication (NVC) can replace, or contradict the verbal message
- replace: if it’s loud, use NVC instead of verbal; Ex: cover your ears
- contradict: using sarcasm to speak, Ex: How lovely
Type of nonverbal communication
1) Body movements = includes gesture, space (distance), position, facial displays, eye
gaze, touch
2) Vocal behavior = includes pauses, response latency, loudness, talk duration, and
speech rate
3) Clothing = garments, devices, cosmetics, treatments
NVC may be classified into two categories (according to Goffman):
1) Given behavior (what you do intentionally)
2) Given off behavior (what you do unintentionally)
Why should nonverbal communication be of interest?
1) Tendency for nonverbal behavior to “leak”
2) We think it might be more important than verbal communication
- we almost always believe the NVC more than the verbal communication
3) We tend to trust nonverbal more than verbal cues even when both channels are
presenting congruent information
- Mehrabian’s famous formula (of how we like someone):
- Liking judgments = 0.7 verbal + .38 vocal + .55 facial information
Nonverbal Channels
I. Gesture
A) Emblems = gestures that have a direct dictionary definition, which implies if you
know what it means, then it is what it means; completely replace our use of words
- (Ex: Peace sign, OK sign); culturally-dependent for the meaning or universal
B) Illustrators = helps illustrates the speech
- 100%/directly tied to the speech/language that’s being spoken
- (Ex: I caught a fish this big; hand movements indicates its size)
C) Regulators = regulates as a traffic signal for interaction flow
- Ex: raising hand, holding up a finger during conversation
D) Adaptors = use to calm or arouse us to manage/level our emotional arousal so you
won’t be over-emotional
- self/object adaptors (Ex: ppl playing with their keys, chewing on pencil,
touching your hair/face etc.)
II. Paralanguage = study of vocal characteristics; how things are said
- not necessary the words being said
A) Temporal qualities = use of time (Ex: using pauses)
- phonetic pause = less than ¼ second; we can’t hear it with our ears
- silent pause = greater than 1/4 sec; we can hear it
- Ex: used to stress dramatic pauses, take time to plan out things to say
- filled pause = greater than ¼ sec with sound
- Ex: Ummmmmm….
- response latency = amount of time between speaking turns
- speech rate = how fast you speak
B) Vocal quality
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