CMN 140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Influence Of Mass Media, Intentionality, Master Sergeant

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11 Apr 2017
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Lecture 12 - 3/2: Media Effects - Chapter 13&14
Chapter 13: Broadening our Perspective on Media Effects
1. Key Idea: when we take a four-dimensional perspective--timing, type, valence
& intentionality--of effects, we can better appreciate the broad range of effects
the media are constantly exerting on us
2. Taking a Broader View
1. Many individuals have a narrow perspective on media effects
1.1. We look for high-profile tragedies (which are rare) & isolate it as
evidence & use it to conclude that they are media effect (they
have some indication of media effect) Ex: See, theres so much
crime happening in Oakland, when in reality there isn’t THAT
much
2. Ppl believe effects only happen to other ppl/it doesn’t happen often
1.1. faulty thinking
1.2. Media effects are happening all around us every day; they are
happening to everyone (Ex: Suzanne & her baby brothers she
was babysitting)
2. With narrow perspective, no awareness or control of effects
1.1. We cannot perceive the many effects that are constantly occurring
all around us
1.2. Effects will influence you without your awareness & occur outside
of your control
2. Broader perspective = more media literate
1.1. Key to media literacy = awareness of the variety of media effects
1.2. When you are media literate, you can decide which effects you
want to experience & which you want to avoid (gaining control)
2. Timing of Effects
1. Timing of effects distinction focuses your attention on when evidence of
effects starts to show up more so than on how long it lasts
1.1. Media effects can either be immediate or long-term
1.1.1. Immediate: during or immediately after exposure
1.1.1.1. One that occurs during your exposure to a
media message
1.1.1.2. Evidence of that effect is observable during
the exposure or immediately after it
1.1.1.3. Might last for only a short period of time or
might last forever (still immediate b/c changed
something in you during the exposure)
1.1.2. Long-term: show up only after many exposures;
slow & gradual
1.1.1.1. No single exposure or no single message is
responsible for the effect
1.1.1.2. It is a pattern of repeated exposures that
sets up the conditions for a long-term effect
1.1.1.3. Ex: Thinking Oakland is dangerous b/c
you’ve been conditioned by the media of daily
crime programs/news reports & finally one day you
decide to buy locks slowly/gradually constructed
over years of exposure
2. Immediate effects easier to notice
1.1. Why?
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1.1.1. Immediate effects occur during an exposure to a
particular message & this makes it easy to link the effect of
the media msg as a cause & conclude there was a media
effect
1.1.1.1. Long-term effects are harder b/c it is after
many media exposures & many other events
occurring in life, so might be more difficult to link
the effect to media exposures
1.1.2. Usually sudden changes
1.1.1.1. Ex: seeing something on FB that triggers
you; watching a video & you laughing
2. Types of Effects (SEVEN)
1. Cognitive-Type Effect = media can immediately plant ideas &
information in our minds
1.1. Most pervasive widespread, prevalent
1.2. Overlooked
1.3. Media can affect what we know by planting ideas in our minds
1.4. We can constantly acquiring info during every exposure to the
media
1.5. Gained from both factual or social information
1.5.1. As children, we learn about our world by observing
role models (parents, friends, siblings, etc.) this
accounts for almost all information communicated to
children up until they start school
1.1.1.1. The mass media provide an enormous
number of models & actions from which children
might learn (since they spend a lot of time w/ media
like TV and movies; leading to strong influence on
children’s learning)
1.1.2. Even as adults, we continue to pay careful attention
to social models
1.1.1.1. When we do not have the social models we
need in our real lives, we can usually find them in
the media
1.1.1.2. Some of us want to learn most from social
models who are powerful, attractive, successful
(career or sport) develop a vicarious relationship
with that individual (athlete, model, politician, role
model)
1.1.1.1.1. Develop social information about
what makes us successful & happy
1.2. Oftentimes, ppl will not expose themselves to the media with the
purpose of learning anything, rather they will be interested in
seeking escape or entertainment (Ex: TV, radio, film); however
acquisition of information & attitude change does take place
(incidiental learning)
2. Belief-Type = media can illustrate beliefs that we accept
1.1. Belief = faith that something is true or real
1.2. Media show us values used by ppl in news & fictional characters
1.2.1. sometimes explicitly expressed by the specific
character so easy to accept or reject the displayed value
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