CMN 172 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Lie Detection, Scantron Corporation, Study Guide

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School
Department
Course
Professor
1
Study guide
Computer-Mediated Communication
CMN 172 SS2 2016
Dr. Jorge Peña
The final exam will focus equally on both class content and readings. It will consist of multiple-choice
questions, true/false statements, find the incorrect option, etc. Bring a Scantron Form 2000, along
with a pencil and eraser.
Online deception.
o Defining digital deception. Identity and message-based deception. Motivations to deceive and
types of identity deception in SNS (Tsikerdekis & Zeadally, 2015).
Defining digital deception:
self-presentation strategy
deliberate behavior
aimed at creating a false belief
occurs in the context of communication technology use
accomplish goals
identity based or message based
Identity based deception:
type of digital deception
false manipulation of personal or organizational identity (e.g. identity theft)
message-based deception:
type of digital deception
information in the messages exchanged between people is deceptive
Motivations to deceive:
Instrumental:
o motivation to deceive
maintaining power or influence
relational:
o motivation to deceive
starting or maintaining a relationship
not random
Image based:
o motivation to deceive
avoiding embarrassment
types of identity deception in SNS (Tsikerdekis & Zeadally, 2015):
identity concealment:
o type of identity deception
identity info is omitted or altered
identity theft:
o type of identity deception
a person's identity is stolen
identity forgery
o type of identity deception
a new persona is created along with a new history record (e.g. sock
puppets)
o How good are people at detecting lies? The truth bias, reliable indicators of deception discussed in
class. Deception detection and production examples in face-to-face and CMC.
How good are people at detecting lies?
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in first encounters, people detect lies 50% of the time
deception detection is not better for professions who have lie detection
experience (e.g. police, detectives, psychologists judges)
The truth bias:
tendency to judge people and messages as truthful
suspiciousness requires mental capacity
politeness: asking for justification is hard
reliable indicators of deception discussed in class:
Gaze aversion
Smiling
Hand/finger movements (fidgets)
Foot/leg movements
'ah' , 'eh' , 'like' speech dysfluencies
1st person singular pronouns (I) most reliable verbal
speech rate
voice pitch most reliable nonverbal
first person singular pronouns are the most reliable verbal cue for deception
detection
voice pitch is the most reliable nonverbal cue
o Jeff Hancock’s TEDx Winnipeg talk (new types of deception: sock puppets, Chinese water
army/astroturfing, butler lies). http://www.ted.com/talks/jeff_hancock_3_types_of_digital_lies
Sock puppets:
about identity
ex: reviewing your own book positively, but under a different name
Chinese water army:
thousands of people are paid a small amount of money to produce content
astroturfing
butler lies:
lies that allow for polite initiation and termination of conversations
manage the entry and exit of social interactions
create a buffer
aimed at protecting a relationship i\n a 24/7 connected world
ex: "i'm on my way" but you haven't left yet
o The motivational impairment effect. Evidence seen in class.
The motivational impairment effect:
the higher the motivation to lie, the more likely our behavior will give us
away aka leakage or poker tell hypothesis
highly motivated liars make more errors and produce more disfluencies
compared with less motivated liars
CMC may alleviate, especially when using low bandwidth technologies -->
lying in CMC may be more effective than lying in FtF
Evidence seen in class:
FtF
o when lying, highly motivated liars were rated as less truthful compared
to less motivated liars
CMC
o when lying, highly motivated liars using CMC were rated as more
truthful than highly motivated liars in FtF
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o Media choice and deceptive behavior (Hancock, Thom-Santelli, & Ritchie, 2004). Social distance
(definition, prediction) and the feature-based model (definition, prediction). What were the main
findings of the study?
Social distance (definition, prediction)
lying is uncomfortable
use the most "socially distant" media to lie
FtF < phone < IM < email
the feature-based model (definition, prediction)
more likely to lie using media that has the least media features
email < FtF/IM < phone
What were the main findings of the study?
lies related to current actions
o synchronicity and co-presence may prevent people to lie about what
they're actually going
lies related to explanations
o highly planned lies were sent over email
more experienced users lied more frequently
planned email lies were explanations sent to professors
o Deception in LinkedIn and traditional resumes (Guillory & Hancock, 2012). Overall frequency of
lies in traditional, public, and private resumes. Verifiable and unverifiable lies in traditional,
public, and private resumes.
Overall frequency of lies in traditional, public, and private resumes.
Traditional
o the chances of being caught lying is higher for publicly available LI
profiles than for traditional resumes
o traditional resume creators lied more frequently about verifiable
information and lied less frequently about unverifiable information
Public
o participants creating public LI profiles lied less frequently about
verifiable information and lied more frequently about unverifiable
information
private
o no difference between the three conditions (traditional resume, public
LI, private LI) about overall number of lies produced
Verifiable and unverifiable lies in traditional, public, and private resumes.
Verifiable
o responsibilities
less likely to lie about this
Unverifiable
o interests
less relevant to job qualifications, but can accomplish self-
presentational goals
not widely known
o Deceptive online reviews (Ott, Choi, Cardie, & Hancock, 2011, seen in class). Evidence for the
truth bias in human coders’ ratings. What linguistic features were more common in truthful hotel
reviews? What linguistic features were more common in deceptive hotel reviews?
Evidence for the truth bias in human coders’ ratings.\
All three judges exhibited the truth-bias.
Judges performed roughly at chance (M = 57.3%).
Automated linguistic analysis was more accurate (M = 79.9%).
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Document Summary

The final exam will focus equally on both class content and readings. It will consist of multiple-choice questions, true/false statements, find the incorrect option, etc. Bring a scantron form 2000, along with a pencil and eraser: online deception, defining digital deception. Identity based deception: type of digital deception false manipulation of personal or organizational identity (e. g. identity theft: message-based deception: type of digital deception information in the messages exchanged between people is deceptive, motivations to deceive: Instrumental: motivation to deceive maintaining power or influence relational, motivation to deceive starting or maintaining a relationship not random. The truth bias, reliable indicators of deception discussed in class. 2: media choice and deceptive behavior (hancock, thom-santelli, & ritchie, 2004). Social distance (definition, prediction) and the feature-based model (definition, prediction). What were the main findings of the study: social distance (definition, prediction) lying is uncomfortable use the most "socially distant" media to lie. Overall frequency of lies in traditional, public, and private resumes.

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