1.17.14 Marijuana.docx

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University of California - Davis
Environmental Toxicology
ETX 20
Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan

Marijuana Botany • Class: Angiosperm / flowering plant / seed born within a carpel (vessel or fruit) • Subclass: Dicotyledon (dicot) two seed leaves • Family: Cannabinaceae (with hops) • Genus: Cannabis • Species: sativa • Germination: 3 - 7 days • Growth: 3 to 15 feet • Dioecious: individual male and female plants • Leaves: Palmate (3 - 11 leaflets), lanceolate (wider in the middle, tapered ends), serrated margins (toothed), pinnate venation (equal branching off central axis) Marijuana • Sinsemilla - mature, seedless female plants • Indica - one of the purported species other than sativa • Keif - a concentrated form where the glandular materials/hairs have been physically removed for use (powder) • Hash - a concentrated form where the glandular materials/hairs have been physically removed and compressed for use • Hash oil - a concentrated form that has been chemically extracted for use • Honey oil - a purified extraction usually involving butane and a plant “trap” or filter (such as capped PVC pipes) Classification? • Low doses - mild sedative/hypnotic agent (alcohol, antianxiety agents) • High doses - effects similar to a mild hallucinogen experience • Unlike sedatives high doses do not produce coma or death • No cross tolerance between THC and LSD or THC and sedative-hypnotics ANALYSIS • Presumptive color test Duquenois - Levine - solvent extraction of plant sample - 2 grams vanillin dissolved into 100 ml ethanol and 2.5 ml of acetaldehyde - concentrated hydrochloric acid - chromophore (region of light absorption - electron transitions giving the complementary color) formed from condensation reaction - addition of chloroform (color extraction) - quality control: traceable reagents (lot numbers and approved vendors), standardized formulations, and periodic checks with verified reference material • Microscopy plant morphology, trichomes (hairs) - low power stereo (polarized light?) - cystolithic (bear claw) nonglandular on dorsal calcium carbonate deposit - unicellular cover and glandular hairs on ventral • Thin Layer Chromatography - colors visualized with Fast Blue B, Fast Blue BB, or Duquenois reagent - Rf determination (spot distance from origin divided by total solvent front distance)
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