Philosophy 1 Lecture Day 19
• The mistake of metaphysics has been to try to construct a priori a system that applies to
things in themselves.
• We do not construct transcendental real objects so then do we construct objects that are
• Empirically real objects are the objects in space and time so does Kant adopt the strong
view that spatio-temporal objects are constructed of the human mind.
• Outputs of human mental activity:
1. Intuitions, present individual objects
2. Concepts, present many objects as falling under kinds
3. Judgments, combine the previous two concepts to form descriptions of reality.
• Judgments are two types:
1. Analytic judgments which are to clarify concepts
2. Synthetic Judgments which connect a concept with something beyond it:
a. The sum of the angles of a square is 360
b. The sun warms the stone.
• Metaphysics will consists primarily of synthetic judgments which are made a priori
• Because we construct objects (or view of the object) about which the judgment is made
we can know in advance of experience that the object (or view thereof) has the features
attributed to it in the judgment.
• An intellectual intuition would be one in which objects are given to our rational faculty
simply by thinking about them.
• But Kant claims no objects are given to the rational faculty only by thinking about them.
• Therefore there is no human knowledge through intellectual intuition
• We can have purely rational knowledge of a principle it would be through the relation of
concepts to one another.
• Kant believed we can gain knowledge a priori of synthetic propositions through the
passive reception of objects presented in sense perception.
• Two forms of human sensibility:
2. Time • Kant views all objects which are intuited in sense-perception are in(or are viewed as
being in) space and time
• Claimed that numbers are generated by counting
• 2 Claims can be connected with space and time:
1. Geometrical objects are constructed in space
2. Numbers are constructed in time
• Given that intuited objects are in space and time, geometrical and numerical
constructions apply to them
• Mathematical constructions in general can be carried out a priori.
• We know a priori that intuited objects have quantitative properties to which mathematics
• This results provides a foundation for mathematical sciences of sensibly intuited objects
• Space and time are a priori forms to which every object given in sensible intuition must
• Corresponding to space and time are a priori concepts of understanding, the categories.