Philosophy 1 Lecture Day 11
• Arguments for immortality are very weak
• Argument of analogy is the strongest one
• Kant attacked the soul in 18 century
• In any causal relation there is a cause and what it causes to be what it is.
• 2 Causalities are The forms which make a thing the kind of thing it is and The Matter
which takes on qualities by its relation to the forms
• Aristotle criticizes Forms by:
1. Redundancy- if there are already kinds of things in the world, it is redundant to
introduce a separate set of forms corresponding to each kind
2. Inappropriateness-we can group things into kinds in many ways, and each one
would have to have a form such as:
a. Negations (non-animal)
b. Relatives (taller than)
3. Inefficacy- Forms are distinct from the world of perceptible things and so cannot
be causes of change in the world.
a. They are not mixed in with perceptible things
b. To say they “share” in the perceptible things is an empty metaphor.
c. Asource of motion is needed to account for change in the world.
• People use property rather than forms
• Disagreement about whether properties are universal, i.e., instantiated by more than one
• Aristotle rejected the theory of forms and mostly that they claim forms are distinct from
the things that share in them
• Aristotle wrote Metaphysics (metaphysics) and Physics (natural science)
• Form comes from Greek word “eidos” to describe what makes a thing the kind of thing
that it is.
• Aristotle agreed with the usage but not in the way which it applied to things
• Aquality a things might or might not have is called an accident or incidental of the thing.
• Nine different accidents a. Quality, in a narrow sense (white)
b. Quantitative (2 feet long)
c. Relative (larger)
d. Where (in the Lyceum)
e. When (yesterday)
f. Being in a position (sitting)
g. Having (has shoes on)
h. Acting on (cutting)
i. Being acted on (being cut)
• In contrast to accidents the essence of a thing or subject is “what that subject is”
• Humanity is called the “species: to which Socrates belongs
• The accident of being pale also belongs to a species, and so on with other accidents
• The form is identified with the species
a. The form of Socrates is to be human
b. The form of Socrates being pale is paleness
• Not all grouping of things into kinds, however, call for forms
• The species are restricted to what is essential and what is accidental
• So if form is a species, negations (Socrates is not dark) would lack a form.
• Generally the range of form