Pol Lecture 4 and 5 Ch 11.doc

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Political Science
Cheryl Boudreau

12114Pol Lecture 4 Chapter 11 Voting Campaigns and ElectionsWord of the Day CryptoInitiativesinitiatives that use direct democracy as a way to achieve nonpolicy related goalsdesigned by agenda setters often from outside the state or localitygoals such as voter registration turnout election outcomesexamples Defense of Marriage FasTracks minimum wageThe Logic of ElectionsAmerican democracy is representative democracyMadison emphasized the main differences between a democracy and a republicThere are two great points of differenceare first the delegation of the government in the latter to a small number of citizens elected by the rest secondly the greater number of citizens and great sphere of the country over which the latter may be extendeddelegation of authority raises the possibility of agency lossone solution is to hold regular free competitive electionselections work to ameliorate this problemthey give ordinary citizens a say in who represents themthe prospect of future elections give officeholders who want to keep or improve their jobs a motive to be responsive agentselections provide powerful incentives for the small set of citizens who want to replace the current officeholders to keep a lose eye on representatives and to provide critical evaluations of them to the public at largeThe Right to Votethe practice of selecting leaders by ballot arrived in North America with the first English settlersthey also brought with them the practice of limiting franchiseevery colony imposed property qualifications for voting and many denied suffrage to Catholics Jews Native Americans and freed black slavesno colony allowed women to voteonly about half of the adult male population was eligible to vote at the time the Constitution was adoptedsince that time voting rights have expanded to virtually all adult citizensthis triumph reflects the powerful appeal of democratic ideas combined with profound social changes the struggles of dedicated activists and the perpetual scramble for votesWider Suffrage for Menthe initial property requirements for voting in early American history were a reflection of social reality at the time Most adults were poor illiterate and dependentthose in an advantaged position were not inclined to risk the social order which helped them maintain their positionhowever the nature of the New World made access to property somewhat easierproperty requirements were not enforced strictlyand the Revolutionary War itself exerted a powerful influence on the demands to enlarge the franchisemen who risked their lives fighting for independence felt entitled to full citizenship regardless of wealth lowered age to 18Universal suffrage for white men as not fully achieved until the 1840s in the wake of
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