POL 3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Preventive War, Democratic Peace Theory, Humanitarian Intervention

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8 Jun 2018
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Lecture 6: Security and War
Security and War
National security- the ability of a state to protect its interests, secrets and citizens form threats
that endanger them.
-> focus on threat, protection, capability
War
1. Organized, deliberate violence by an identifiable political authority
2. More lethal than other forms of violence (>1000 battle deaths in year )
3. Both sides must have some real capability to harm each other
Type of Wars
Interstate= b/w 2 or more states
o EX WWII
o # has declined post WWII
Intrastate= iolee hose origis la ithi states iil ar
o Has become more common than interstate war
It not means not other state involve
o Variety of reasons
Faction v. government fighting for territory EX Nigeria
Trying to establish government for control of a failed or fragile state EX
Somalia
Ethno-nationalist movements seeking greater autonomy or secession - fight
gov to get own state
Wars bw ethnic, clan, or religious groups for control of the state- fighting each
other EX South Sudan
o Iteratioalized itrastate ar= intrastate war with other countries involved on
one side or other
Great African War= internationalized civil war in Democratic Republic of Congo
(1996-2003)
People fight the government and was support Uganda- new government
came and they oppose the states
o Recent intrastate wars- Arab Spring (Libya and Syria)
Peaceful protests-> harsh government repression-> escalation-> more harsh
response
Call for international intervention
Libya- NATO intervention on behalf of Libyan rebels accelerated collapse
of the incumbent government
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Syria - incumbent government better prepared and allies offered military
support
Complicating matters, Islamic State comes into Syria in 2013
Has become highly internationalized
Iran and Russia supporting the Syrian government; Saudi
Arabia US, Turkey support some of the rebel groups
Some people support/ against Islamic state and/or other just rebel
groups or gov
Conventional War
o Goal is to defeat enemy on the battlefield
Combatant only legitimate targets
o Are lost or won when soldiers of one groups, or their leaders, acknowledge defeat
following a clash of arms)
o Conventional weapons=destructive effects can be limited in space and time to those
who are legitimate targets of war- you know who your hitting and when it’s going
to end.
Unconventional weapons- effects not limited in space and time - effect a citizen's and
effect for long time
o Chemical weapon- WWI mustard gas
o Nuclear weapons- effect for years
Key types of unconventional war:
o Guerilla warfare- the combatants are hiding in the citizens and the citizens are hiding
them EX Vietnam
o Nonviolent resistance- citizens are protesting EX Gandhi not MLK because war in
Gandhi
Both citizens are in the front lines.
Terrorism- people can not fight back
(3 things):
o Political in nature and intent
o Perpetrators are non state actors - not gov- people
o Targets are noncombatants
Essence is psychological rather than physical - they want them to believe that
government cannot protect them
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