POL 3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Kyoto Protocol, Multilateralism, Human Rights Watch

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8 Jun 2018
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Lecture 8: IGOs
IGO= international agencies or bodies established by states and controlled by their member
states that deal with areas of common interests
EX UN, EU
IGOs can be both enabling and constraining
o IGOs are enabling, as states often use them as instruments of their own foreign
policy
EX U“ "uses IMF to gie out loas to states it likes ot eed
More powerful state - control loans
Istitutios as tools to see o iteests= ealist idea
o IGOs can also constrain
Set agendas
Force governments to take decisions
Enforce development of processes facilitating participation
Create norms/ rules of behaviors state align policies with if wish to benefit
from IGO membership
EX Mutualism
o Realists would disagree here-> states can just leave IGO if they don't like it
EX Brexit- United states did not like how it was it going in European Union
What can IGOs do?
1. functionalism= institutions are created to solve specific technical or economic problems
1. EX health, communications (mail) - technical issues not political
o Habits of cooperation with develop, which will spill over from economic cooperation
to political cooperation
Solve collective action problems =make sure collective goods are not exploited by any one
state
1. Collective Good - goods available to all regardless of individual contributions
1. EX Park - tax pay for park all people pay and benefit
2. Institutions can restructure preferences of states through rewards and punishment
1. Offer positive incentives for state to refrain from engaging in destruction of
common goods
2. Tax (punish) those who rail to cooperate
1. Ozone layer and Montreal Protocol - use rewards and punishment for
people who use the chemical that harms the ozone layer
3. Settle disputes-help states work things out when they have a conflict
1. EX WTO dispute settleet ehais
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4. Conduct operational activities - carry out everyday tasks- monitoring duties,
administrative duties
1. EX IAEA,IMF
5. Arena for bargaining= forum for states to negotiate
1. They edue tasatio osts he they do this
2. EX GATT
6. NLI argument- institutions can help bring about cooperation (see end of notes)
Key IGO: the United nations
1. UN Security council (UNSC) - first powerful
1. Deals with international peace and security issues
2. Five permanent members (with veto power); 10 elected
1. The 5: UK, US,Frances, Russia, China - Counties won WWII- Power was a play
2. 10 others: (two year term)
(need reform because not lots of representation)
3. Most esolutios euied 9 yes + o eto to pass a astai- the 5 can abstain
4. Only body that can make decisions that all other countries must abide by -
everybody is legally bound - most power
5. Only body to authorize use of force (Chapter VII of charter- give the power- use
section on states that do not obey)
6. Often argue to be in need of reform
3. Un General Assembly - second most powerful
1. 193 member (all recognized states in the system
1. Some blocs: vote in plogs
1. G-77 - coalition of ~ 125 developing states South
2. G-20 - major econ power vs. North
2. Had power during Cold War( arguably more than UNSC)
3. Forum for states to ari ideas and complaints from constituents - public naming
and shaming of stats
4. Arena for member states to debate issue
5. Evaluates and approves budget- only binding decisions - but also limited
because another committee
6. But : limited influence- weak institution
1. Can only make recommendations (not binding)
2. Member have widely diverse interests - hard to get agreement
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