# POL 51 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Confounding, Content Validity

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5 Feb 2017
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FEB 1
Lecture 6
- Last lecture before midterm
- Office hours moved to Wednesday (12-2pm) just for next week
- HW: (due 2/6/17)
- On the back of the wksht
- Evaluate the measure you proposed on Monday using the criteria we covered in lecture
- Is bias a potential problem w your measure? Explain why or why not.
- How valid is your measure? Does it lack content validity?
- 1-2 small paragraphs
Measurement (cont.)
- Improving Measurement
- If unsure a single measure achieves 4 criteria (Operationalizations are not observable, 1 question, etc.)
Triangulation
- Can take multiple measurements/questions
- We can get closer to the “true” value
- Can raise content validity
- Multiple Questions or Multiple Measures
- “Multiple questions to create one measure”
- Want to better measure the construct
- In reality, each survey question is its own measure
- Just measures different components of that construct
- We use multiple measure to get a better overall measure of the construct of interest
- Multiple measures also applies outside of survey research
Ex. Perez - Lost in Translation?
- Hypothesis: Expects that linguistic differences between items compromise their cross-language validity
- (He expects them to be different between English speaking people and Spanish speaking people)
- 4 “agree-disagree” questions about specific traits that an immigrant must hold in order to be considered part of the American society.
(American Identity = )
- Goal: to determine if the items (each question) work the same for both groups
- Would like the items to be “invariant” across groups
- Perez wants to see if each item for each construct is the same across groups
- Construct: American Identity
- Tested 5 Constructs
- Survey Items (Questions) to measure American Identity
- “Do you identify yourself as an American?”
- On a scale from 1 (do not identify as an American) to 5 (definitely identify as an American), where would
you place yourself?
- Problem w/these questions
- People don’t want to be seen in a negative light (over-reporting/stating)
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