PSC 1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Mental Age, Intellectual Disability, Twin

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8 Jun 2018
School
Department
Course
Professor
Intelligence
What is intelligence?
Intelligence is what intelligence tests measure
What do intelligence test measure?
Basic concepts in measurements
o Reliability
When a test produces the same scores under the same conditions
Unreliability: conditions stay the same, but score changes.
o Validity
The measure is reliable
But not valid
Construct validity: a test measures what it claims to measure
If test is valid, its scores should correlate with other measures of the same
construct
E.g. Scholastic achievement
Academic tests
SAT
CAT
Correlates
Grades
Grade-level
Predictive validity: scores at one time predict at a future time. Allows to predict
future results.
o Distributions
Measures of central tendency: mean, median and mode
Variability
How do IQ tests work?
Developed by Alfred Binet
Step 1: test a large number of people
o Norming sample
o Result: A distribution
Some perform low, most in the middle and some high. So we get a distribution
of results.
Testing intelligence depends on distribution
Affected by:
variability
Interpreting scores that assumes that your test is reliable
Step 2: is the test reliable?
o Split- half: scores on one half compared to the other half
o Test -Retest: two or more separate testing sessions.
Test 1 and 2 results line up.
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Step 3: is your test valid?
o Does it have construct and predictive validity?
What is IQ (Intelligence Quotient)?
IQ- ["mental age"/age] x 100
Mental age:
o Step 1: Test many kids
o Step 2 : identify items that discriminate e between ages
E.g.: a 5 yo get them right but not 4 yo.
o Step 3: test an individual kid.
Deviation IQ
o Measure of an individual's generalized intelligence. analyzes a person's intelligence
relative to their age.
o Test only same age people
o You get a distribution
Why use Intelligence tests?
Predictive validity
o IQ tests can identify children with mental retardation
o Intelligence tests predict achievement in school.
One intelligence (G) or many?
G: one factor accounts for performance on numerous sub tests
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