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Lecture 4

PSC 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Card Sorting, Microsoft Powerpoint, Developmental Psychology


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSC 130
Professor
A.Yonelinas
Lecture
4

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January 19, 2017:
I. Chapter 4 & 5: Encoding
A. Learning Principles:
1. Total Time Hypothesis the amount learned is a direct function of the time spent learning
Ebbinghaus: *The more practice you have learning a list on day 1 (i.e., the number of repetitions)
the faster you will be to relearn it the next day
a. The better your encoding is on day 1, the better your memory will be
2. Distributed vs. Massed Practice spreading out practice leads to better learning
Baddeley & Longman (1978) typing skill in postal workers
a. *Faster learning with distributed practice (two 1-hour blocks vs one 2-hour blocks)
b. Mass encoding leads to much faster forgetting
c. Distributed encoding helps knowledge stay in your memory better and for a longer period
3. The Levels of Processing Effect deeper or meaningful processing leads to better memory
Craik & Tulving (1975)
a. Study a list of words:
i. SHALLOW lower processing; if words have ‘upper case’
ii. INTERMEDIATE phonological, more processing; if word ‘rhymes with…’
iii. DEEP semantic processing; does the word ‘make sense?’
b. Test: recognition memory:
i. Best memory with DEEP processing, next INTERMEDIATE, lowest with SHALLOW
c. Maintenance rehearsal (repeat words at the same level) is not very effective
d. Elaborative rehearsal (process item to a deeper level) is very effective
4. Some more examples:
Kapur et al., (1994) PET study of LOP
a. *Living/nonliving judgements (i.e., semantic processing) led to greater left prefrontal cortex
activity than a-checking judgements (i.e., perceptual processing)
b. Semantic processing involves the left prefrontal cortex
Hyde & Jenkins (1974) LOP Intention
a. *LOP increased recall
b. *Intention did not always help
5. The Organization Effect organized material is better remembered than disorganized material
Deese (1959) participants were presented with 3 different kinds of 15 word lists that varied in
terms of how organized they were
a. *Organization increased recall
6. The Distinctiveness Effect memory is best for novel/isolated items
a. ***Brain areas important for this effect: hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala***
Ex: “von Restorff (1993) effect”
a. Study: X A T F B Y W (an assortment of items were presented to the participant)
b. Test: recall
i. *Recall is improved for the B item (because it’s a different color, different category,
etc…)
c. Accounts: enhanced attention or reduced interference
d. *Still see the distinctiveness effect is seen even though the subject can’t know that B is
distinctive even after it has been studies
e. Support for the reduced interference account
Ex: Kirchhoff et al. (2000) novel/repeated pictures and words at encoding followed by a
recognition test
f. *Frontal and medial temporal lobe regions were more active for novel than non-novel items
g. *Activation in these same regions also predicted subsequent memory
h. The frontal and medial temporal lobes are involved in encoding novel items
i. Support for the attention account
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