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Lecture 7

PSC 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: False Alarm, Dual Process Theory, Detection Theory

Course Code
PSC 130

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January 31, 2017:
I. Chapter 8: Retrieval
A. Retrieval
1. Compatibility Effects memory is best when the processing or
context at test is similar to that study
2. Godden & Baddeley (1975) underwater compatibility (physical
a. Study: learn a list of words on the beach or 15 feet underwater
b. Test: free recall words either on a beach or 15 feet underwater
c. *Memory is best if study and test conditions are the same
3. Smith (1979) Room Effects on Free Recall (mental contexts)
a. Study: in room A
b. Test: recall in room A, room B, or room B but “imagine you
are in room A”
c. *Small advantage for the same room
d. *Same advantage if room was imagined
e. Compatibility effects are not limited to physical context (mental context is also important)
4. Music and Memory: Smith (1985) Context effects of music
on word recall during study and test
a. Music restatement effects
b. Slight benefit of background music at test
B. Different Types of Explicit (LTM) Tests
1. Free Recall recall the items that were studied
2. Cued Recall use a cue to help recall items that were studied
(e.g., animal names in the list)
3. Recognition
a. Old/new “was this word in the study list?”
b. Forced-choice “which word was in the study list? A or B?”
4. *Generally: free recall < cued recall < recognition
5. *Different tasks tap different memory processes? (yes)
C. Evidence for a Recall/Recognition Distinction
1. The Word Frequency Effect (e.g., aardvark vs. cat)
a. Aardvark is a low frequency word; cat is a high frequency word
b. *High frequency words are better recalled than low frequency words
c. *Low frequency words are better recognized
d. Recall/Recognition (a cross-over) dissociation
2. Frontal Lobe Lesions
a. Recognition seems easier because you don’t have to generate
the output; you see the choices given
i. Maybe the search of memory for recall is not involved in
b. *Disrupt recall more than recognition; recognition not very
c. Recall/Recognition dissociation
3. The Generate-Recognize Model Kintch (1970)
Recall requires that the item be generated prior a. to a recognition check
i. Whereas recognition only requires the
recognition check
b. The Generate-Recognize Model accounts for:
i. The fact that recognition is generally better
than recall
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