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Lecture 10

PSC 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Henry Molaison, Diazepam, Rajaram Chhatrapati


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSC 130
Professor
A.Yonelinas
Lecture
10

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February 16, 2017:
I. Dual-Process Theories of Recognition: Recollection and Familiarity
A. Recollection and Familiarity
1. Recognition memory judgements can be based on
recollection or on familiarity
2. Recollection (R) a relatively slow search process
whereby qualitative information about a prior event
is retrieved (e.g., when, where, etc.)
a. You can decide quickly ‘yes’ or ‘no’, or you
have to search through memory
3. Familiarity (F) a relatively fast process whereby
familiarity or a ‘sense of recency’ is used as a basis
for recognition (i.e., the item seems familiar, so it
probably was studied)
4. There are various dual-process models:
Atkinson & Juola (1974) a fast familiarity
assessment of lexical store followed by a search of
list memory (i.e. recollection) if familiarity is
ambiguous
a. Essentially, you assess how familiar something
is (classic signal detection theory: yes = old; no = new)
b. In the blue box (ambiguous zone), familiarity is not easy to diagnose –that’s when the person
conducts a recollection search
c. Diagram under familiarity curves: sensory register leads to lexical store where they assess
familiarity that gives a response that leads to an output
d. Ambiguous answer leads to E/K (episodic/knowledge) store where you search everything then
respond
How would you measure recollection and familiarity?
e. It’s tricky to dissociate them
f. If looking within recognition, you need to figure out
5. There are various ways of measuring R and F
a. Response deadline if R is slow then speeded responses should rely more heavily on
familiarity
b. Process dissociation / source memory (Jacoby, 1991) ‘item recognition’ relies on both R
& F, whereas ‘source recognition’ relies more heavily on R
i. ‘Source memory’ – need more specific memory of details of item’s source; “can you tell
if item was from list 1 or list 2?” – need to recollect more details; relies more on R
more objective
c. Remember / know (Tulving, 1985) subjects can report when they ‘remember’ and when
they just ‘know’ an item was studied
i. Introspective report; relies too much on speculation
d. ROC (Yonelinas, 1994) R & F can be estimated based on the shape of the ROC (i.e.
confidence judgements)
B. Experiment Studies for Measuring R and F
1. Remember / know (Tulving, 1985)
a. ‘Remember’ – if you can retrieve qualitative information about the study event…such as what
the word looked like, its context or what you thought about
b. ‘Know’ if the word is familiar in the absence of recollection…that is, you think it was
studied but you can’t recollect anything about it
c. ‘New’ – if you think the word was not studied
d. The logic is that ‘remember’ reflects recollection; familiarity is probability of having a sense
of something
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