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Lecture 11

PSC 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Positron Emission Tomography, Word Stem, Free Recall

Course Code
PSC 130

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February 21, 2017:
I. Implicit Memory (Chapter 5 pg. 117-127)
A. Implicit Memory
1. Explicit Memory Tests tasks that explicitly instruct subjects to use memory (e.g. recall,
2. Implicit Memory Tests tasks that do not explicitly instruct subjects to use memory
a. (Several different types of implicit memory sometimes referred to as ‘priming’)
B. Perceptual Implicit Memory Tests (Perceptual Retrieval Cues)
1. Word Fragment Completion
Tulving, Schacter, & Stark (1982)
a. Study: list of words
b. Test (1 hour or 1 week later): recognition or
word fragment completion (e.g. t__ui_la for
c. Forgetting rates are slower for perceptual
implicit memory than for explicit recognition
d. Implicit and explicit memory tests dissociate
Mulligan (1998)
a. Study: words (full attention) vs words + secondary task
(divided attention)
b. Test: implicit fragment completion vs explicit fragment
completion (cued recall)
c. Implicit memory does not require attention
2. Perceptual Identification
Jacoby (1983)
a. Study: read vs generate (“hot” vs “the opposite of
cold is…?”)
b. Test: recognition vs perceptual identification (e.g.
flash words for 10ms, “identify words”)
c. Dissociation between implicit and explicit tests
d. Generation helps recognition, but seems to hurt
perceptual implicit memory
3. False Fame Effect
Jacoby, Kelly, Brown, & Jasechko (1989)
a. Study: list of nonfamous names (pronunciation task) (e.g.
Sebastian Weisdorf, Larry Jacoby, etc.)
b. Test: fame judgements (old and new nonfamous names mixed
with famous names), immediate test vs after a 24-hour delay
c. *False fame effect only seen after a delay
d. Recollection seems to decrease faster than implicit memory
4. The Mere Exposure Effect
Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc (1980)
a. Study: presented irregular polygons 5 times each for 1ms exposure duration
(subliminal perception)
b. Test 1: forced-choice recognition (“which one was in the study list?”)
i. *49% correct [basically the same as guessing]
c. Test 2: forced-choice preference (“which one do you like the most?”)
i. 61% correct
d. *Prior presentation can lead to a preference for items even without any explicit memory
e. Dissociates implicit and explicit memory tasks
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