PSC 153 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Information Processing, Seventh Amendment To The United States Constitution, Jury Trial

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26 Dec 2019
Criminal Behavior Jury System
Reminder Criminal Behavior: Psychological Theories
Validity of the theories varies greatly
No theory explains it all
Most concentrate on men (not women)
Most concentrate on violent crime
Is it true that child maltreatment is associated with crime?
Does violence beget violence?
Social Information Processing
Kenneth Dodge
Is aggressive behavior caused by biased social information processing?
Attributions to others of hostile intent
Is biased social information processing related to experiences of violence
in childhood?
Attributions of hostile intent
Aggressive children overattribute hostile intent to others
They access many aggressive responses & evaluate aggression
Kenneth Dodge’s Model
Child physical harm
Leads to
Maladaptive social information processing
Leads to
Dodge’s hypotheses
The experience of severe physical harm increases the risk of later
aggressive behavior
Severe physical harm in childhood is associated with biased/ deficient
social information processing
biased/ deficient social information processing will predict chronic
aggressive behavior
How does one process social information?
Encode relevant cues
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Interpret cues
Access behavioral responses from LTM
Evaluate consequence of possible behavior
Select & enact behavior
Kenneth Dodge’s study
N = 309 4-year-olds
3 types of info
Mother report of physical harm to child, early life expeirences, & other
possible factors/ contributors (ex: SES, temperament)
Child social information processing at 5 years
Child aggressive behavior 6 months later (5 to 6 years)
Kenneth Dodge’s Task
Social Information Processing
1. Child presented with cartoon vignettes
2. Child told to imagine being the main character; peer does something
negative either with intention of being hostile, benign, or ambiguous
3. Child asked to recall vignette (attention to cues)
4. Ask cild why peer did it (ambiguous most important)
5 child asked how s/he would respond
6. Child asked to generate solutions
7. Child asked to evaluate probable outcome of various responses (
aggressive, nonaggressive)
Dodge’s Research
Compared physically harmed group (n-44) with Not harmed group
CBCL (teacher) aggression scale
Per nomination
Direct observation
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