Lecture 1 How do we know things? Humans constantly gathering and organizing info. about word. Generate theories Science refines this natural tendency. Difference bw theory and opinion? Ways to Acquire Knowledge Intuitive Knowledge Authority Empiricism learning info through your senses (observing, watching, recording data, hearing, etc.) Rationalism Acquiring knowledge through reasoning, deduction, etc. Scientific knowledge describes relationships bw variables, and is objective. Based on rationalism and empiricism. o TheoryData Cycle Start with a theory, which helps us generate a hypothesis. This makes us gather data and info. We then bring that info back into our theory. The data either supports or doesnt support the theory. If it doesnt you come up with a new hypothesis and gather new data. Overview of Acquiring Knowledge Intuition Authority Empiricism Rationalism Science Assumption of Science True physical universe exists. There is randomness and unpredictability, but the universe is an organized system. Discover principles of this system through scientific discovery. Knowledge of universe is incomplete. o New discoveries alter current theories and ideas. o Therefore all knowledge and theories are tentative. Theories Trephining Trephining practice of drilling or chiseling holes in the skull. Some animals experience seizures. Seizures are brief episodes of uncontrolled movement or loss of awareness.