Lecture 5 Method Overview Correlational ResearchAssociation Claims o Two measured variables. o Searching for an association. Experimental ResearchCausal Claims o One manipulated variable, one measured variable. o Searching for causation. o Isolating the effect of the independent variable. Correlational Example (Observational) I wonder if where someone is sitting in a classroom is related to how much they fidget. Three Claims and Correlational Research We can assess a frequency claim (one variable). o Overall, how many students fidget during class? We can assess an association claim. o Do students who chose to sit in the front of the room fidget less than those who chose to sit in the back of the room? We cannot assess a causal claim. o We did not start with equal groups. o We have not manipulated anything. Things to keep in mind No overall best method. Question drives methodology. Multimethodological replication. o Scientists are skeptical Need to replicate findings before accept them as true. o Scientists are persistent Will keep looking for something that they think is real. Measurement Outline Measuring Variables Accurately and Consistently Number System + Psychological Variables Scales of Measurement Implications of Measurement Measuring variables If you cant measure it, it doesnt exist. Some things can be directly measured. o BehavioralObservational (watch them).