Lecture 10 EXAMPLES SURVEY AND OBSERVATIONS Example: Personality and Happiness Extroverts more often report feeling happier than introverts. What does make introverts happy? Method Observing conversations o Small talksuperficial to deepsubstantive Selfreport of conversations o Small talksuperficial to deepsubstantive Selfreport of happiness EXPERIMENTS Experiments Essential qualities of an experiment o Definition of an experiment o Cause and effect criteria o Construct, statistical, internal, and external validity o Random assignment Ruling out everything else Types of experiments Threats to internal validity True and quasiexperiments Method Overview Correlational ResearchAssociation Claims o Two measured variables o Searching for an association Experimental ResearchCausal Claims o One manipulated variable and one measured variable o Searching for causation o Isolated the effect of the independent variable Experimental Research Start with two equal groups Manipulate one variable Measure outcome variable Start with at least two groups. o Always have a comparison or control condition. The groups should be equal at the start. Systematically manipulate the level (value) of an independent variable. o Hold everything else constant (extraneous variables).